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Quality Assurance in Hematology Dr.Mohamed Iqbal Musani, MD. Introduction. QA is the sum of all those activities in which the laboratory is engaged to ensure that information generated by laboratory is correct.
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1 ) Preventive – those activities that are done prior to the examination of the specimen or sample and that are intended to establish systems conducive to accuracy testing ( eg : preventive maintenance and calibration of instruments, testing of media, orientation and training of personnel )
2 ) Assessment – those activities that are done during testing to determine whether the test systems are performing correctly ( eg : the use of standard and controls, maintenance of control charts )
3 ) Corrective – those activities that are done, when error is detected, to correct the system ( eg : equipment troubleshooting, recalibration of instruments )
1 ) Internal Quality Control ( IQC )
2 ) External Quality Control ( EQC )
- the closeness of the estimated value to the true mean
- can be checked by the use of reference materials which have been assayed by independent methods of known precision
- reproducibility of a results, whether accurate or inaccurate within a define frame time ( eg: within the same day, from week to week etc )
- can be controlled by replicate tests, check tests on previously measured specimens and statistical evaluation of results
formula: SD = Σ( x – x )2
n – 1
n : number of measurement
formula : CV = SD X 100%
actual results – weighted median / mean for test
0.5 – excellent
0.5-1.0 – satisfactory
1.0- 2.0 – acceptable
> 2.0 – defect requiring attention
A ) National External Quality Assurance
Programme ( NEQAP )
Pusat Darah Negara
B ) Royal Collage of Pathologists of
Australia ( RCPA )
C ) International EQA Scheme for
Haematology ( IEQAS )
Good Laboratory and Clinical Practices – Techniques For Quality Assurance Professional, P A Carson and N J Dent, 1990
Quality Assurance Practices for Health Laboratories, Stanley L. Inhorn, 1978
Royal Postgraduate Medical School University of London, Dr. S. M. Lewis