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Chapter 10. The Changing American Population. Most American farmers were part of a national and increasingly international market economy The northeast and the northwest were developing a complex, modern economy and society which was increasingly dominated by large cities.

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the changing american population
The Changing American Population
  • Most American farmers were part of a national and increasingly international market economy
  • The northeast and the northwest were developing a complex, modern economy and society which was increasingly dominated by large cities.
the changing american population1
The Changing American Population
  • Southern agriculture, particularly cotton farming, flourished as never before in response to the growing demand from textile mills in New England. The south was resisting strong economic development and defending their dependence on slavery.
the changing american population2
The Changing American Population
  • The United States needed a population that was large enough to grow its own food and produce a work force. Transportation and communications system capable of sustaining commerce over a large geographical area.
  • From 1820-1840 the American population increased, became centered in the Northeastern and Northwestern industrial centers, provided the labor force for the factory system
the changing american population3
The Changing American Population
  • In 1790 the American population stood at only 4 million. By 1820 it had reached 20 million. By 1840 it equaled 17 million. The United States was growing much more rapidly than Britain or Europe.
  • Population increasing, migrating westward, moving to towns and cities.
the changing american population4
The Changing American Population
  • Improvements in public health (the number of epidemics {such as the great cholera plague of 1832} which had periodically decimated urban and even rural populations),
  • High birth rate- rapidly revived beginning in the 1830’s. The total population nearly 13 million, the foreign population was less that 500,000
the changing american population5
The Changing American Population
  • Immigration boom- By 1832 the immigration climbed to 60,000 and nearly 80,000 in 1837. Increased by reduced transportation costs and increasing economic opportunities. The deteriorating conditions in Europe also helped.
the changing american population6
The Changing American Population

Population Growth 1620-1860

Immigration 1820-1840

the changing american population7
The Changing American Population
  • Influx of Irish Catholics- The increased immigration brought a wave of immigrants from Southern Ireland. Marked the beginning of a tremendous influx of Irish Catholics that was to continue through the three decades before the civil war.
the changing american population8
The Changing American Population
  • The agricultural regions in New England and other areas grew less profitable, more and more people picked up stakes and moved- some to promising agricultural regions in the west, but more to the eastern cities.
the changing american population9
The Changing American Population
  • New York became largest city as a result of natural harbor and Erie Canal, which gave unrivaled access to the interior, liberal state laws
  • By 1860: 26% of the population of free states was living in towns or cities
  • In the Northwest once small trading posts became major cities; St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati
the changing american population10
The Changing American Population

American Population Density, 1820

American Population Density, 1860

the changing american population11
The Changing American Population
  • Immigrants came from England, France, Italy, Scandinavia, Poland and Holland, but most came from Ireland and Germany
  • In Germany economic dislocations of the industrial revolution caused widespread poverty, the collapse of liberal revolutions led to social unrest
  • In Ireland the oppressiveness and unpopularity of the English drove people to emigrate, Potato Famine (1845 – 1849) one million people died of starvation and disease and led to immigration to the US
the changing american population12
The Changing American Population

Sources of Immigration 1820-40

Sources of Immigration 1840-60

the changing american population13
The Changing American Population
  • Native American Association was formed to combat the "alien menace", agitating against immigration in 1837, held a convention in Philadelphia
the changing american population14
The Changing American Population
  • Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner endorsed a list of demands, included banning Catholics from holding public office, restrictive naturalization laws, literacy test for voting- secret password "I know nothing"
  • The Know Nothings created the new political organization known as the American Party, contributed to the collapse of the existing party system, creation of new national political alignments
the changing american population15
The Changing American Population
  • The Irish settled in eastern cities, provided unskilled labor, many young single women came over and found jobs in factories
  • The Germans moved on to the Northwest, became farmers or went into business in the western towns, they had more money, came as members of family groups or as single men
the changing american population16
The Changing American Population
  • American views of immigration - welcome supply of cheap labor, move into regions to expand population and market for land, resulted in an increase in political influence of western states
the changing american population17
The Changing American Population
  • Nativism – a defense of native born people and hostility to the foreign-born, thought they were inferior, newcomers were socially unfit to live alongside people of older stock, were stealing jobs from native labor force, Whigs outraged because so many new comers were voting Democratic, feared they would bring new radical ideas into national life
transportation communication and technology
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • In the 1820's and 30's America began to turn to other ways of transportation other than roads, steamboats grew in number and improved in design. Steamboats were used to transport corn and wheat of northwestern farmers and the cotton and tobacco of the south to New Orleans where oceangoing ships took the cargoes to eastern ports.
transportation communication and technology1
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • Farmers would pay less to transport their goods, and consumers would pay less to consume them if they could ship them directly eastward to market, rather than by the roundabout river-sea route, New York first to finance canals
transportation communication and technology2
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • A team of 4 horses could haul on and a half tons of goods eighteen miles a day on the turnpikes. The canals could transport the goods much faster. Canals connected the eastern markets with the western goods.
  • The job of digging the canals fell to the states. De Witt Clinton, a late supporter to the cause became governor in 1817. Digging in New York began in 1817.
transportation communication and technology3
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • The Erie Canal was the greatest construction project Americans had ever undertaken, within 7 years tolls had repaid its entire cost of construction, gave NY direct access to Chicago and growing markets of the west. It went through 350 miles of the high ridges of the Appalachian Mountains
transportation communication and technology4
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • The canal gave New York direct access to Chicago and the growing markets of the west. The system of water transportation grew when the Erie Canal was connected to the Ohio River.
transportation communication and technology5
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • Some states didn’t bother with canals; Boston made no attempt to connect to the west. Baltimore and Philadelphia had the challenge of the Allegheny Mountains; efforts were made with discouraging results.
  • Resulted in increased white settlement in the Northwest, made it easier for migrants to make the westward journey and ship goods back to market
transportation communication and technology7
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • Railroads took a secondary role in the 1920’s and 30’s. Railroad pioneers laid the groundwork in those years for the great surge of railroad building in mid century.
  • Eventually railroads became the primary transportation system for the U.S. and remained so until 1956 (Interstate Highways); railroads were even reaching west of the Mississippi
transportation communication and technology8
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • Competition with the canals- The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company blocked the advance of the B&O Railroad through the narrow gorge of the upper Potomac. New York prohibited railroads from hauling freight in competition with the Erie Canal.
transportation communication and technology9
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • Trunk Lines were a consolidation of short lines into longer lines, four major railroad trunk lines had crossed the Appalachian barrier to connect the Northeast with the Northwest and Chicago became the rail center of the west
  • The results of these Trunk Lines lessened dependence of the west on the Mississippi, helped weaken further the connection between the South and Northwest, diverted traffic from the main water routes
transportation communication and technology10
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • Sources of funding for these Trunk Lines were private American investors, railroad companies borrowed from abroad, local governments-in the form of loans, stock subscriptions, subsidies and donations of land for right-of way, also federal government in the form of land grants
transportation communication and technology11
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • By 1853 four major railroad trunk lines had crossed the Appalachian barrier to connect the Northeast with the Northwest. New York Central and New York and Erie. The Pennsylvania railroad connected Philadelphia and Pittsburg. The Baltimore and Ohio connected Baltimore with the Ohio River
transportation communication and technology12
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • By 1860, Congress had allotted over 30 million acres to 11 states to help with railroad construction

Railroad Growth, 1850-1860

transportation communication and technology13
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • Samuel F.B. Morse perfected the telegraph in 1844 allowing instant communication between distant cities, lines were strung along railroad tracks making the telegraph more common in the North, by 1860 most lines were part of the Western Union Telegraph Company and were being utilized by the Associated Press which was dominated by Northern newspapers that were national in scope.
transportation communication and technology14
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • Transmitted from Baltimore to Washington the news of James K. Polk’s nomination for the presidency.
  • 1846- Richard Hoe invented the steam cylinder rotary press making it possibly to print newspapers rapidly and cheaply.
transportation communication and technology15
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • In New York there were Horace Greeley’s “Tribune”, James Gordon Bennett’s “Herald” and Henry J. Raymond’s “Time.” All gave serious attention to national and international events with significant circulations beyond New York City.
transportation communication and technology16
Transportation, Communication and Technology
  • 1940’s and 50’s journalism helped to feed sectional discord. Most of the major magazines were in the north, reinforcing the South’s sense of subjugation. The South had a few minor newspapers with focused on local news. The combined circulation of the Tribune and the Herald exceeded that of all the daily newspapers published in the south.
commerce and industry
Commerce and Industry
  • By the mid-1800s the U.S. had developed the beginnings of a modern capitalist economy with an advanced industrial capacity that created enormous wealth
  • Consumers – In cities there came to be stores that specialized in groceries, dry goods, hardware, etc, in smaller towns people depended on general stores, and rural areas barter was still common
commerce and industry1
Commerce and Industry
  • Businesses were mostly limited partnerships that were dominated by great merchant capitalists (Vanderbilt) that had sole ownership of their enterprises
  • Corporations which combined the resources of a large number of shareholders began to develop rapidly during the 1830’s when legal obstacles to their formation were removed
commerce and industry2
Commerce and Industry
  • States began to pass general incorporation laws under which a company could get a charter by simply paying a fee, as opposed to getting a charter through a special act of the state legislature as was previously the case, also these new incorporation laws granted limited liability to shareholders which meant that they were only responsible for their investments not the liability of the company as a whole
commerce and industry3
Commerce and Industry
  • As a result, these new corporations accumulated much larger amounts of capital and made possible much larger manufacturing a business enterprises, however there was not enough available credit to handle the needs of these growing businesses so economic instability was a fact of life
commerce and industry4
Commerce and Industry
  • The Government had alone could issue official currency (gold or silver) or paper notes backed by gold and silver. The emergence of corporations caused a demand for more money. Banks began to issue unofficial currency that circulated in the same way.
commerce and industry5
Commerce and Industry
  • The rise of the factory before the War of 1812 was the most profound development of the mid nineteenth century.
  • Most manufacturing took place in private households or individually operated workshops.
commerce and industry6
Commerce and Industry
  • The Factory System which brought textile manufacturing under a single roof started in New England began to spread to other geographic areas and to other areas of industry (shoes), however of the 140,000 manufacturing establishments in the U.S. in 1860, 74,000 were located in the Northeast and those factories produced 2/3 of the manufactured goods in the U.S., also of the 1.3 million factory workers in the U.S. 938,000 of them were located in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states
commerce and industry7
Commerce and Industry

Value of Manufactured Goods (In Millions)









commerce and industry8
Commerce and Industry
  • The U.S. began to lead the world in the manufacturing of machine tools which would then be used to make machinery parts; the national government supported much of this research because it was used to supply the military
commerce and industry9
Commerce and Industry
  • Three important innovations came during this time period – the turret lathe (used for cutting screws and other metal parts), the universal milling machine (which produced identical milled metal parts), and the precision grinding machine (which was used in constructing sewing machines)
commerce and industry10
Commerce and Industry
  • All of these innovations were based on Eli Whitney’s idea of interchangeable parts, and enabled U.S. factories to become world leaders in the production of watch and clock making, the manufacturing of locomotives, the creation of steam engines, the making of many farm tools, and they also led to the development of newer devices such as bicycles, sewing machines, typewriters, and cash registers
commerce and industry11
Commerce and Industry
  • Changes in energy sources also allowed for this rapid industrialization, the shift from water and wood as a source of energy to the use of coal took place during this time period
  • Coal production (most of it around Pittsburgh) was 50,000 tons in 1820, but it increased to 14 million tons by 1860, and allowed factories to be located away from running streams and allowed industry to expand
commerce and industry12
Commerce and Industry
  • The number of patents granted in 1830 was 544, by 1850 it was 993, and by 1860 it was 4,778
  • Charles Goodyear invented vulcanized rubber in 1839 and created a major rubber industry in the U.S. by 1860
commerce and industry13
Commerce and Industry
  • In 1849, Elias Howe invented the sewing machine, a few years later Isaac Singer made improvements on it, and the Howe-Singer sewing machine was creating ready-to-wear clothing by 1860
commerce and industry14
Commerce and Industry
  • Merchant capitalism was declining by 1860 and was being replaced by corporations but the industrial capitalists became the new ruling class, the aristocrats of the Northeast with far-reaching economic and political influence
men and women at work
Men and Women at Work
  • Ninety percent of American people in the 1820’s still lived and worked on farms.
  • People began leaving poor farm land in the North to work in factories
  • Mid- Atlantic region: whole families moved to work in mills
  • Massachusetts: enlisted young women in their late teens, early twenties
men and women at work1
Men and Women at Work
  • Lowell or Waltham System: worked for several years in the factories, lived in clean boardinghouses, well fed, carefully supervised, saved wages, and returned home to marry, working conditions better than those found in Europe
  • For women work in the mills was virtually the only alternative to returning to farms that could no longer support them
men and women at work2
Men and Women at Work
  • Factory Girls Association: staged a strike to protest a 25% wage cut, then again for a boardinghouse rent increase - both strikes failed
  • Sarah Bagley, led the Lowell women to form the Female Labor Reform Association- agitated for 10 hour work days
men and women at work3
Men and Women at Work
  • Immigrants were labor that was vast and inexpensive, encountered far worst working conditions
  • Irish men mostly worked in construction on the turnpikes, canals and railroads - did not earn enough to support families
men and women at work4
Men and Women at Work
  • Miserable working-class neighborhoods were emerging in northeastern cities
  • Mass production threatened skilled artisans, began to form Trade Unions
  • National Trades Union was founded by delegates from six cities - mainly failed, although New Hampshire and Pennsylvania passed 10 hour work day
men and women at work5
Men and Women at Work
  • Commonwealth v. Hunt declared that unions were lawful organizations and that the strike was a lawful weapon
patterns of industrial society
Patterns of Industrial Society
  • Commercial and industrial growth elevated the average income of the American people, but income was still distributed unequally
  • 5% of families possessed more then half the wealth, opulent neighborhoods emerged.
  • Merchants and industrialists were accumulating enormous fortunes; and because there were now a significant number of rich people living in the cities, a distinctive culture of wealth began to emerge.
patterns of industrial society1
Patterns of Industrial Society
  • The construction of the city’s great Central Park, which began in the 1850’s, was in part a result of pressure from the members of high society who wanted an elegant setting for their daily carriage rides.
patterns of industrial society2
Patterns of Industrial Society
  • Paupers: poor people struggling to survive, recent immigrants, widows, orphans
  • Urban areas had significant black populations with access to only menial jobs, paid too little to support families, could not vote or attend public schools
  • Social Mobility was rare but possible
patterns of industrial society3
Patterns of Industrial Society
  • The absolute living standard of most laborers was improving. Life, in material terms at least, was usually better for factory workers than it had been on the farms or in the European societies.
  • Acquiring land out west was a "safety valve" as well as politics, ability to vote
patterns of industrial society4
Patterns of Industrial Society
  • Rapidly expanding middle class, could become prosperous without owning land- providing valuable services, lived in solid homes, women tended to remain in the home, hired servants
  • Cast iron stove became an important source of heat
  • Families were no longer the principal unit of economic activity - began to hire help (female workers)
patterns of industrial society5
Patterns of Industrial Society
  • Farm women became less crucial, and had lower economic status
  • Birth rate fell due to increased abstinence, birth control, abortions
  • Oberlin in Ohio became the first college to accept female students
  • Wife was expected to remain in the home and engage in largely domestic activities
patterns of industrial society6
Patterns of Industrial Society
  • "Separate Sphere" - women began to develop female culture, friendships, social circles, women's literature, magazines- isolated themselves from the public world, few men considered women fit for business politics or professions
  • Cult of Domesticity – believed that women had female virtues, provided a home of refuge from the real world, resulted in a society by 1840's few women would work in mills or shops
patterns of industrial society7
Patterns of Industrial Society
  • Holidays became highly celebrated and reading became a principle leisure activity, the sentimental novel offered idealized visions of women's lives and romances, theaters, boxing, horse racing, minstrel shows, circus
patterns of industrial society8
Patterns of Industrial Society
  • P. T Barnum opened the American Museum in NY- a great freak show populated by midgets, Siamese twins, magicians
shakespeare in america
Shakespeare in America
  • Public interest in his plays reached its peak in the 1830’s through the 1850’s when theatre was the single most popular performing art throughout the United States.
  • Shakespeare was the most popular playwright.
  • The texts were reworked with American dialect, and plays were abbreviated into programs containing other popular work of the time
shakespeare in america1
Shakespeare in America
  • Edwin Forrest- Celebrated American actor; Beloved by working class audiences as a great patriot and a common man who had risen to greatness. Performed Macbeth the same night as an acclaimed Englishmen was. Ten thousand Forrest enthusiasts gathered outside and attempted to storm the theatre. The militia was called out killed 22 more than 150 wounded.
the agricultural north
The Agricultural North
  • Most people remained tied to agriculture
  • Decline of farming in Northeast, could not compete with the rich soil of the west, the leading wheat growing states used to be NY, Penn., Ohio, and Virginia by 1860 they changed to Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin
the agricultural north1
The Agricultural North
  • Eastern farmers response was some moved to the west, establishing new farms, some moved to mill towns, some remained and began supplying food to the urban centers
  • The rise of cities stimulated the rise of profitable dairy farming- half the dairy products in the country were produced by the east, New York became leading hay state however rural population began to decline
the agricultural north2
The Agricultural North
  • West began to experience steady industrial growth but still much less important then farming, and Indians remained most numerous inhabitants
  • Average inhabitant was the owner of a prosperous farm, commercial agriculture focused on a single crop
  • Industry created a growing demand for farm goods- farm prices rose
the agricultural north3
The Agricultural North
  • Strong economic relationship developed between the east and west- isolating south
  • Cyrus H. McCormick invented the automatic reaper
the agricultural north4
The Agricultural North
  • Northwest considered it's self the most democratic based on a defense of economic freedom and rights of property
  • Farmers on the east coast lived in vibrant communities, with churches, schools, stores, taverns, and religion drew farm communities together