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English Civil War

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  1. English Civil War By Chris Anderson Randolph-Henry High School

  2. When Elizabeth came to power, she had to share power with Parliament • Parliament will gain more power under Elizabeth • She saw Parliament as an integral part of English Politics • 1603: Elizabeth dies, Parliament attempts to gain more power over national policy • this attempt for more power will lead to a major conflict between the crown and Parliament--erupting into a Civil War

  3. Opposition to the Crown • After Elizabeth comes James VI of Scotland--he becomes James I of England • James starts a new English dynasty--Stuart • by 1603, he is already king in Scotland • soon after his coronation, James and Parliament begin to have problems • James was not a good judge of people or situations • he was used to working with the very weak Scottish Parliament

  4. James I

  5. James was not ready to handle the powerful English Parliament • James believed in divine right of kings--that he received all of his power directly from God • this belief in the divine right of kings will worsen the relationship between the crown and Parliament

  6. James will be somewhat dependent on Parliament--he keeps asking them for $ • James was not money wise--he kept spending $ on himself and the government (parties, etc.) • James kept asking Parliament for $, but Parliament refused to give him all that he asked for • in order to get all the $ he needed, James began selling titles of nobility

  7. Parliament and James differed over his foreign policy • Parliament becomes very upset when James ends the war with Spain--the peace treaty ending the war placed England into debt

  8. James will infuriate Parliament again by attempting to arrange a marriage for his son Charles • James wanted his son to marry a Spanish (Catholic) princess • Parliament feared that this marriage may bring Catholicism back to England • Luckily for Parliament, the marriage plans did not carry through

  9. Religion was still playing a large part in the politics of England • most people in England belonged to the Church of England • people in the Church of England still questioned the doctrine and rituals of the Church of England • the Puritans will be a group that oppose the doctrine and ritual of the Church of England • they wanted to get rid of all remaining Catholic ritual in the church • Puritans in Parliament also wanted to purify the church

  10. When James became king, the Puritans in Parliament asked James to sign a petition to make Puritan reforms--getting rid of Catholic ritual--in the Church of England • James will reject this petition • James told the Puritans to either conform to the Church of England or he would force them out of England

  11. Charles I Inherits the Throne • 1625: James I dies leaving his son Charles to take over the throne • Charles will inherit the problems that his father also had • Charles did not like the Puritans and also believed in divine right of kings • Charles also marries a Catholic--Henrietta Maria--the King of France’s sister

  12. Charles I

  13. Henrietta Maria

  14. Charles will eventually go to Parliament asking for $ to fight a war against France and Spain • Parliament gives him some, but not all that he had asked for • Charles dissolves--breaks up--Parliament because they did not give him all of the $ • he then will try to raise $ without Parliament • he tries to force landowners to give him $, but they refused • those that refused the king, however, were placed in prison • many in England become upset with Charles’ actions

  15. Charles will also upset people when he demands that his troops be boarded in peoples’ homes--billet • Charles declares martial law--military rule--in many parts of England • in these places, the people lost their rights • 1628: Charles recalls Parliament into session • by 1628, Charles had already engaged in wars with both France and Spain

  16. This recalled Parliament has decided that they want to limit Charles’ power • Parliament agreed to raise taxes for Charles’ wars if Charles signed the Petition of Right

  17. Petition of Right • 1.) the king could not collect taxes or force loans without Parliament’s consent • 2.) the king could not imprison anyone without just cause • 3.) troops could not be housed in a private home against the will of the owner • 4.) the king could not declare marital law unless England was at war

  18. Charles will sign the Petition of Right, but Charles’ behavior will remained unchanged • nearly 1 year after he had signed the PoR, he again disbands Parliament and vowed never to recall Parliament back into session • for the next 11 years, Charles rules over England without Parliament • Charles collected his own taxes and imprisoned his enemies--direct violations of the Petition of Right

  19. At this same time, Charles is also causing problems with England’s religion • he appoints a new Archbishop of Canterbury--William Laud • Charles and Laud will persecute the Puritans, denying the Puritans the rights to preach or publish their works • Both Charles and Laud will burn Puritan works and publicly whip many Puritans • Many Puritans will flee England and come to the English colonies looking for religious freedom

  20. William Laud

  21. Between 1630 and 1643, hundred of Puritans came to the Americas--Great Migration • most Puritans did not leave England but stayed to fight against Charles

  22. Charles and Laud also began looking into the religious realm of Scotland • they both wanted to establish the Church of England in Scotland • they tried to force the Calvinist Church of Scotland to accept the Church of England’s prayer book • the Scots will deny the prayer book and pledge their religious freedom • the Scots are ready for war

  23. Beginnings of Civil War • In the early 1640’s, Scotland will invade England • to defend England, Charles needed $ • to get $, Charles will recall Parliament after it had been dissolved for over 11 years • Parliament refused to talk about $ until they had finished complaining about Charles • Charles wanted nothing to do with the complaining and will again dissolve Parliament after only 3 weeks--Short Parliament

  24. Charles still needed $ and will recall Parliament one more time • members of Parliament wanted their complaints to be heard • Parliament will be mostly controlled by Puritans • this Parliament will stay in session for a very long time (20 years) and will be called the Long Parliament • the Long Parliament was determined to decrease Charles’ power

  25. Charles’ special courts were eliminated by the Long Parliament • the Parliamentary members pass laws requiring Parliament to be called every three (3) years • illegal taxation was ended • the Long Parliament will imprison Archbishop Laud and eventually execute him

  26. With all of the problems already occurring in England, more problems will arise with Ireland • since the 1100’s, relations between England and Ireland had been bad • Ireland was Catholic and refused to accept the Church of England • the Irish were upset over England’s taking of Irish land and giving it to Scotland • 1641: the Irish rebel against the English • Charles now had a major dilemma--both Ireland and Scotland were rebelling against him

  27. Charles now needed the Puritan Parliament’s help • however, Parliament began to split into 2 distinct groups • the Puritans in Parliament were against the king • the Royalist supported the king and opposed Puritan control over the Church of England

  28. 1642: Parliament created the “Nineteen Propositions” • these propositions were designed to make Parliament the supreme power in England • Charles, however, refused to follow the propositions • Charles led troops into the House of Commons and attempted to arrest 5 Parliamentary leaders • Charles’ show of force meant that war between the crown and Parliament was drawing very near • Both sides begin to prepare for war

  29. English Civil War • Charles created an army composed of nobles and landowners from the north and west of England • these were called Cavaliers • mostly cavalry and horsemen • the Puritans of Parliament gathered their military from the south and east of England • these people were called Roundheads

  30. The leader of the Roundheads--Oliver Cromwell • Cromwell was a very religious man and good military leader • he led the Roundheads to many victories in the English civil war • May,1646: the royalist forces--Cavaliers--surrendered to the Puritans • Parliament will now have complete control over English government

  31. Those Parliamentary members who opposed the Puritans were removed • the Puritan Parliament that was left behind was called the Rump Parliament • Charles did not surrender until 1647 • Charles will be put on trial and be executed • his execution shocked the English people

  32. New Government • With the king now gone, Parliament attempts to create Republican form of government • England will be declared a commonwealth--a state governed by elected representatives • Parliament argued over reforms and did not hold new elections

  33. 1653: Oliver Cromwell took over Parliament by force • Cromwell had been gaining lots of power and influence because of his fighting in Ireland and Scotland • Cromwell names himself Lord Protector and dismissed the Rump Parliament • for 5 years, Cromwell will rule over England as a military dictator

  34. Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector to England

  35. Cromwell forced very strict rules on the English people • dancing, swearing, and gambling were outlawed in England • swearing and missing church were punishable by fines

  36. 1658: Cromwell dies leaving his son, Richard, to take over England • Richard was not like his father • he was forced to resign • the people of England had become frustrated with the constantly changing government, tired of military rule and civil war, and unhappy with Puritan restrictions • the military government eventually recalled the Long Parliament to negotiate with Charles’ I son who had been living in France

  37. Parliament seemed ready to reinstate the monarchy • however, the ideas of a representative government and individual rights would remain part of the English government • no monarch will have absolute power in England again