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Session 8: The Design of CKLA Skills A Synthetic Phonics Approach
CKLA Skills explicitly teaches children the distinction between sounds and spellings. Design principle 1
Design Principle CKLA Skills explicitly teaches children the distinction between sounds and spellings. • SHOCK CUSSED TOE (person) • MOW BEAD HICK (book) • AISLE OH VIEW (saying) • DOCKED HEARSE WHOSE (person) • THESE HOUNDE DOVE MOO SICK (movie)
Let’s Distinguish Sounds and Spellings • How many sounds? • at • tip • cape • slip
Let’s Distinguish Sounds and Spellings • How many sounds…. • pluck • brush • thinner
Distinguishing Sounds and Spellings: Another Way S-L-I-P B-R-U-SH THINNER CKLA explicitly teaches digraphs, but not clusters, as a spelling pattern CLUSTER CLUSTER DIGRAPH DIGRAPH DIGRAPH
Distinguishing Digraphs from Consonant Clusters • then • milk • grin • hand • quilts • trap • lunch • twig • club • drum • quiz • shut Consonant Cluster • milk • grin • hand • trap • twig • club • drum Digraph • then • quilts • lunch • quiz • shut
The Instruction of Sound vs. Spellings The instructional language in CKLA requires you to be very clear: • Are you talking about something you hear with your ear (e.g., sounds)? -or- • Are you talking about something you see with your eyes (e.g., symbols, spellings)?
CKLA Instruction in Sounds and Spellings Consider the language of instruction: what evidence is there of a sound or spelling focus?
CKLA Instructs in Sounds /sh/ not ‘sh’ . Note the markings in the text. Also note how to say this. We often want to add a sound at the end. Its particularly hard for sounds like /b/ and /p/. It’s important to have them try to hear sounds in different word positions. Where a sound is in a word makes it sound different. Taught earlier. Children’s sensitivity with sounds changes can help with word retrieval. These are good activities for sound sensitivity and word retrieval.
CKLA Instructs in Spelling Consider the language of instruction: what evidence is there of a sound or spelling focus?
CKLA Instructs in Spelling Focus on the visual Language is very precise for sound versus spelling Focus on the visual
Language and Goals of Instruction Things You Hear speech sounds vowels consonants /m/ /ie/ /ee/ phonemes Things You See
Language and Goals of Instruction Things You Hear speech sounds vowels consonants /m/ /ie/ /ee/ phonemes Things You See writing letters vowel spellings consonant spellings ‘m’ ‘i_e’ ‘e_e’ graphemes
CKLA teaches children the most frequent and least ambiguous sounds first. Design principle 2
Basic Code Spellings • The basic code spelling for a sound is the most common, or the least ambiguous, spelling for that sound. • It is also the spelling we teach first in CKLA.
Consider These Spellings: • ‘o’ (hop) • ‘a’ (hat) • ‘e’ (pet) • ‘i’ (it) • ‘u’ (but) • ‘a_e’ (cake) • ‘ee’ (bee) • ‘i_e’ (bite) • ‘o_e’ (home) • ‘u_e’ (cute) • ‘oo’ (soon) • ‘oo’ (look) • ‘ou’ (shout) • ‘oi’ (oil) • ‘aw’ (law) • ‘er’ (her) • ‘ar’ (car) • ‘or’ (for)
The Value of Most Frequent, Least Ambiguous Sound • Write down as many words as you can think of that have the ‘a_e’ spelling pattern. • Write down as many words as you can think of that have the letter a in them. • How many of these are long ‘a’ sounds? • Write down as many words as you can think of that have the long /a/ sound spelled “eight”
CKLA Links Sounds and Spellings Explicitly FIRST GRADE SECOND GRADE KINDERGARTEN
CKLA gives intensive practice in distinguishing sounds and spellings whose characteristics may make them confusing. Design principle 3
Grouping Sound-Spellings Many children are apt to confuse the listed spellings. These are also among the trickiest letters/sounds for English Language Learners. Why? • ‘s’, ‘z’ • ‘t’, ‘d’ • ‘c’, ‘g’ • ‘ch’, ‘sh’ • ‘p’, ‘b’ Visually similar All consonants, not vowels Soundsarticulated similarly
Consonants • Consonants are not as loud as vowels. • Many consonants cannot be stretched out and occur very ‘quickly.’ • The acoustic property of consonants shifts depending upon the sounds around it.
Place, Manner, Voicing Every sound is defined by three things. • Where your lips, tongue and teeth are (place), • How the air flows (like a burst or a flow; manner), • Whether your voicebox is on (voiced) or off (voiceless). • /s/, /z/ • /c/, /g/ • /p/, /b/ • /m/, /n/ Minimal pairs only differ in one dimension: place, manner, voicing. All of these are minimal pairs.
Activity: Examine a Reader Seth’s Finch th Seth ch Finch 28
CKLA directly instructs in those oral language skills that underlie and parallel reading and writing skills. Design principle 4
Reading and Spelling • Spelling requires you to take a word, segment it into individual sounds, and determine how those sounds are represented (i.e, what spelling pattern to use). • Reading requires you to break apart text into known spelling patterns, translate those spelling patterns into sounds and blend those sounds. In your own words, describe the relationship between blending and reading/ segmenting and spelling.
You Try It • Get with a partner. • Take turns teaching from the chaining. • Pretend that your ‘student’ makes a mistake in the chaining. • How can you pull from the instructional language/skills of the segmenting activity to help?
In Your Own Words… • CKLA Skills explicitly teaches children the distinction between sounds and spellings. • CKLA teaches children the most frequent and least ambiguous sounds first. • CKLA gives intensive practice in distinguishing sounds and spellings whose characteristics may make them confusing. • CKLA directly instructs in those oral language skills that underlie and parallel reading and writing skills.