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Modals Week 12. What are modals?. Might. Had better. Can. May. Auxiliary verbs. Must. Could. Shall. Ought to. Should. Will. Would. Why do we use modals?. obligations suggestions advise expectations.

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Modals Week 12

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Week 12

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

what are modals
What are modals?


  • Had better



Auxiliary verbs




  • Ought to




Norsarihan/lang description_2011

why do we use modals
Why do we use modals?





Norsarihan/lang description_2011


Modal or modal auxiliaries change the meaning of the base verb. The meaning changes according to the context of the sentence.

  • We should allow him to stay
  • I want to be a good person
  • She can be a good person

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

two types of modals
Two types of modals:
  • Simple modals : for the present and future

2. Perfect modals: to show necessity in the past tense.

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

simple modals present and future
Simple modals: Present and future

Modal + base form

  • Examples:
    • We should inviteyour friend to my party.
    • We couldbuysome soda if you have money.
    • You mightwant to call your mom and tell her you are at a friend’s house.

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

perfect modals past
Perfect modals: past

Modal +have + past participle

  • Examples:
    • You shouldhavecalledme last night.
    • Mary shouldhavedone her homework this week.
    • We should nothavemade a big mess here.

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

showing strong necessity
Showing strong necessity:

Must I must go to sleep!

Have to I have to go to sleep!

Have got to I have got to go to sleep!

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

you use had better for a warning recommendations or desperation

You had betterbring your portfolio with you today. recommendation

That bus had betterget here soon!

desperate hope

You had betterwatch the way you talk to me in the future!


Norsarihan/lang description_2011

use should to offer advise
Use Should to offer advise

Should means…it would be a good idea.

You should eat something you are hungry.

You should read a book and turn off the television.

They should stop being so loud.

We should have a party at the beach.

Norsarihan/lang description_2011


Irregular modal verbs in the past and future

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

could or might are more gentle than should
Could or might are more gentle than should….

You could read a book.

You shouldread a book.

They might like the movie.

They shouldlike the movie.

We could buy some candy.

We shouldbuy some candy.

I might play basketball.

I shouldplay basketball.

He could win your blue marble.

He shouldwin your blue marble.

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

meanings of modals 1
Meanings of modals 1

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

meanings of modals 2
Meanings of modals 2

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

meanings of modals 3
Meanings of modals 3

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

meanings of modals 4
Meanings of modals 4

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

meanings of modals 5
Meanings of modals 5

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

meanings of modals 6
Meanings of modals 6

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

modal verbs used in variety of forms
Modal verbs used in variety of forms

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

sentence pairs
Sentence pairs:

Norsarihan/lang description_2011

conversation cards small group discussions
Conversation cards: Small group discussions

Norsarihan/lang description_2011