modals n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
MODALS PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
MODALS

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 14

MODALS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 263 Views
  • Uploaded on

MODALS . THEORY & EXERCISES. What are « modals »?. Modals (or modal verbs, auxiliaries) are used to modify the main verb and give a new meaning to the sentence. The most common structure is modal + infinitive : I work I can work I must work I should work. OBLIGATION

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'MODALS' - kaori


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
modals

MODALS

THEORY

& EXERCISES

what are modals
What are « modals »?
  • Modals (or modal verbs, auxiliaries) are used to modify the main verb and give a new meaning to the sentence.
  • The most common structure is modal + infinitive : I work

I can work

I must work

I should work ...

modality meaning
OBLIGATION

Must (self obligation)

We must be generous.

Have to (external requirement)

We have to go.

Be to (formal)

Visitors are to leave at 6 pm.

ABSENCE OF OBLIGATION

Need not

You needn’t help me.

Modality meaning
modality meaning1
WEAK OBLIGATION

Should

You should try.

Ought to

I ought to help you.

PROHIBITION

Must not

You mustn’t steal.

May not

They may not speak.

Cannot

I can’t tell you.

Modality meaning
modality meaning2
Modality meaning
  • PERMISSION & HELP

Can Could

  • You can go out. Could you help me?

May Might

  • They may come in. They might sit.

Be allowed to Need not

  • I was allowed to eat. I need not stay.
modality meaning3
DOUBT

May

This is a good proposition, so she may accept it.

Might

Federer might lose his title soon.

BELIEF & DISBELIEF

Must

You must be tired.

Can’t / couldn’t

It can’t be true!

They couldn’t have lied to their parents.

Modality meaning
modality meaning4
ABILITY & POSSIBILITY

Can, could

I can play the flute.

Be able to

I was able to answer.

OTHERS

To have something done

I have my car repaired.

Be to (future)

She is to receive her diploma next week.

Modality meaning
semi auxiliaries marginal modals and modal idioms
Semi-auxiliaries, marginal modals and modal idioms

be able to dare had better

be likely to need would rather

be meant to ought to ...

be willing to used to

be supposed to ...

...

degrees of likelihood
WILL

MUST / HAVE TO

CAN

MAY

SHOULD / OUGHT TO

WOULD

COULD

MIGHT

Degrees of likelihood

Manchester Utd [modal] win the championship in 2010.

consider the following sentences what do the modals imply
The mountains should be visible from here.

There must be a mistake.

Could you please give me a hand?

May I ask you something?

Go to bed, you might feel better soon if you do.

You really ought to phone Mum.

They have to be careful with their money.

It can’t be true!

Consider the following sentences. What do the modals imply?
spot and correct the errors
Spot and correct the errors.
  • It ought be changed immediately.
  • Look at these darkd clouds! I’m sure it might rain.
  • You musn’t speak like this to your father.
  • It should to be easy to get her agreement.
  • Mr Spencer, can you help me?
  • Ten years ago, I was allowed to golf very well.
  • I could like to do it, but I may not, sorry.
some interactive exercises now
Some interactive exercises now...

An easy one to start with...

Exercise 1

Now more difficult... But first, let’s watch Friends!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jQOfh3KcjU4&feature=related (part 1)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a56LhyFAo1A&feature=related (part 2)

Exercise Friends & Modals « The One with Monica and Chandler’s Wedding« 

In case the Friends exercise doesn’t work or is unavailable...

Exercise 2

Exercise 3

Alice in Wonderland Trailer

  • To help you revising:

A very complete modals chart with examples (past, present, future)

further exercises
Further exercises
  • Create a poster with school rules (for students AND teachers) or laws in your own imaginary country.
  • Imagine your ideal best friend /roommate / teacher / world / partner / ...
  • Draw some fancy roadsigns and have your classmates guess what they mean.
  • In groups, discuss and compare what you are (not) allowed to do at home / in your country (if you are a foreigner)...
  • Act out a dialogue between a father and his daughter, using as many modals as possible. Start like this: « Dad, may I... ». Use your own experience!
  • Act out a politician’s speech. Imagine you want to be elected President. Be as convincing as possible!