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The Prevalence and Properties of Outflowing Galactic Winds at z = 1. Katherine A. Kornei (UCLA) Alice E. Shapley (UCLA) Crystal L. Martin (UCSB) Alison L. Coil (UCSD). UCSC Flash Talk - October 28, 2011. Galaxies are not closed boxes. outflows?. outflows?. IGM. cold streams?.

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slide1

The Prevalence and Properties of

Outflowing Galactic Winds at z = 1

Katherine A. Kornei (UCLA)

Alice E. Shapley (UCLA)

Crystal L. Martin (UCSB)

Alison L. Coil (UCSD)

UCSC Flash Talk - October 28, 2011

slide2

Galaxies are not closed boxes.

outflows?

outflows?

IGM

cold streams?

AGN feedback?

Outflows

AGN feedback?

enrich the IGM in metals/dust

…quench star formation

…regulate black hole growth

slide3

Outflows are seen in local starbursts.

M82 (z=0.0008)

HST/ACS BVIHα (M. Westmoquette)

slide4

Outflows can be inferred through line offsets.

Given outflowing material between the observer and the galaxy:

MgII 2796/2803

[OII] 3727 Å

Nebular line – at zsys

zsys

MgI 2852

MgI

MgII

DN/sec/pixel

Weiner et al. 2009

Outflowing gas will be blueshifted with respect to nebular lines tracing star forming regions.

Velocity (km/sec)

slide5

A variety of absorption lines are used to probe outflows.

Reddy et al. 2008

z

0.5

1.0

3.0

Na I D ≈ 5900 Å

Fe II/Mg II ≈ 2600 Å

H I + others ≈ 1200 Å

Weiner et al. 2009, Rubin et al. 2010

Interstellar

Lyα

Steidel et al. 2010

slide6

DEEP2 survey (the origin of the sample).

Slitmasks with 120 targets

50,000 galaxies at z ≈ 1 in 3.5 deg2

DEIMOS on Keck II (90 nights: ‘02-’05)

R = 5000 (70 km s-1)

B-R

Resolved [OII] doublets

z < 0.75

z > 0.75

DEEP2 Team

R-I

BRI color cuts in 3/4 fields for z > 0.75

Galaxy environments, ages, colors at z ≈ 1

Clustering statistics

Evolution of dark matter halos

Close pairs/merger rates

≈ 1 hour integration

slide7

Extended Groth Strip – no color cuts and lots of ancillary data.

GALEX imaging

(FUV, NUV)

F606W

http://aegis.ucolick.org/

HST imaging

(F606W, F814W)

6”

Spitzer imaging (IRAC, MIPS)

slide8

LRIS observations of DEEP2 objects at z = 1.

[OII] (zsys)

CIV, FeII, MgII, MgI (zout)

LRIS: 7200-9000 Å

LRIS: 3400-6700 Å

DEIMOS: 6500-9100 Å

212 objects from the DEEP2 survey; B < 24.5

1.19 < z < 1.35

CIV 1549, MgI 2852

12012777

z = 1.27

Normalized Flux

Mg I

Al II

Fe II

Fe II

Si II, C IV

Mg II

Rest Wavelength (angstroms)

slide9

Many analyses are possible.

LRIS spectroscopy

measure fine structure

FeII* emission lines

definezsys([OII], Balmer series)

fit FeII absorption lines

characterize MgII emission

slide10

72 LRIS objects are in the Extended GrothStrip.

  • star-formation rates
  • dust attenuations
  • HST imaging

EGS (72)

Other fields (140)

slide11

More analyses are possible.

LRIS spectroscopy

measure fine structure

FeII* emission lines

definezsys([OII], Balmer series)

fit FeII absorption lines

characterize MgII emission

HST imaging, F606W & F814W

morphologies

colors

galaxy areas

inclinations

SFRs, dust attenuation from GALEX

slide12

Blue, star-forming galaxies at z = 1.

Kornei et al., in prep.

Kornei et al., in prep.

slide13

A physical model for fitting absorption lines.

Define a systemic reference frame, ideally from the LRIS spectra.

Fit multiple emission lines ([OII], OIII, Balmer) using template spectra.

Simultaneous fit to 5 resonant FeII absorption lines

We use a single component fitwith 4 free parameters:

covering fraction

tilted OII lines

(small fraction of sample)

zsys

zout

op. depth at line center

line center

Doppler parameter (2½σ)

slide14

BlueshiftedFeII absorption features are not ubiquitous in the sample.

12100420 z = 1.20

Inflow?

Martin et al., in prep.

Kornei et al., in prep.

Outflows

Inflows

Other outflow diagnostics: MgII, FeII*

slide15

The strength of outflows is correlated with various galaxy properties.

Na D

ULIRGs

face-on

outflow velocity (km/s)

dwarf

starbursts

edge-on

Chen et al. 2010

Martin 2005

SFR (M*/yr)

Outflows not seen in edge-on systems.

Outflow velocity increases with increasing star formation rate.

face-on

edge-on

slide17

Are outflows correlated with star-formation rate surface densities?

6”

F606W

Σ

SFR estimate

Clumpy objects at high z – need a better area estimate that traces luminous regions.

area estimate

UV, 24 μm, emission lines, etc.

Half-light radius?

Petrosian radius?

A = πR2

slide18

A new technique for estimating galaxy areas.

Petrosian

area

Clump

area

F606W

Include only those pixels brighter than a certain luminosity threshold, thereby flagging clumps.

Given “clumpy” galaxies:

slide19

Higher star-formation rate surface density objects show larger blueshifts.

No trend seen:

Rubin et al. 2010

(used half-light radius)

Steidel et al. 2010

(ground-based imaging)

Kornei et al., in prep.

slide20

Composite spectra show same trends as individual objects.

Star-formation rate surface density composites::

High

Low

High: dV = -31 ± 7 km s-1

Low: dV = 44 ± 15 km s-1

High: dV = -300 km s-1

Kornei et al., in prep.

Mg II shows more kinematic variation than Fe II

slide21

The geometry of outflowingwinds at z = 1.

Na D

face-on

edge-on

Chen et al. 2010

Estimate inclination from axis ratios from HST imaging:

a

face-on

edge-on

i = cos-1(b/a)

b

slide22

Face-on galaxies show stronger blueshifts than edge-on systems.

Inclination composites::

Low

High

More edge-on: dV = 28 ± 11 km s-1

More face-on: dV = -19 ± 9 km s-1

face-on

edge-on

slide23

Mergers are not required to drive outflows.

Law et al. 2007

high G

low G

Gini (G) – measure of how light is distributed in a galaxy

Lotz et al. 2008

Kornei et al., in prep.

low M20

high M20

M20 – second order moment of a galaxy’s 20% brightest pixels

slide24

Fine structure FeII* emission is associated with resonance absorption lines.

Does this emission come from star

forming regions or from outflows?

zsys

v = 0

F606W

Leitherer et al. 2010

probing very different scales at z = 1 and z = 0

v = +100

v = -100

8400 pc/”

16 pc/”

Kornei et al., in prep.

2626 Å (fine structure)

2600 Å (resonance)

slide25

FeII* emission is prevalent.

FeII* emitters FeII* non-emitters

Stacks of FeII* emitters/non-emitters

FeII, FeII*

MgII

FeII* emission appears to be ubiquitous

Kornei et al., in prep.

The strongest FeII* emitters are bright and blue.

stronger FeII* = stronger MgII emission

Kornei et al., in prep.

slide26

Complexities of the MgII feature at ≈ 2800 Å.

Composite spectrum

MgII and FeII absorption are kinematically distinct.

Individual spectra show MgII emission

MgII

Martin et al., in prep.

AGN? (Weiner et al. 2009)

Scattered wind? (Rubin et al. 2010)

slide27

Summary.

Reddy et al. 2008

[OII] (zsys)

CIV, FeII, MgII, MgI (zout)

LRIS: 7200-9000 Å

LRIS: 3400-6700 Å

DEIMOS: 6500-9100 Å

Petrosian

area

Clump

area

Outflow velocity most strongly correlated with the concentration of star formation.

Kornei et al., in prep.

slide29

N

E

Hubble Space Telescope

1.6 μm

Weiner et al. 2009

F160W

F775W