A “Textbook” View of Sexual-Behavior Anatomy. The Nervous System. nervous system responsible for communication between us and environment among regions of the body coordinates and integrates information regulates activity; maintains homeostasis memory & consciousness.
integration & control
A nerve cell
layout of some
The limbic system is responsible for generating our emotional feelings (pleasure, frustration, anger) based on our cognitive interpretation of our environment
sensory association cortex
posterior to primary
maps visual space
association area interprets
frontal above orbit
Sensory areas of the brain receive input from nerve fibers which originate from different types of receptors (touch, visual, auditory, pain, taste).
Sensory nerves originating from Pacinian corpuscles in the skin (mechanoreceptors) respond to touch.
A-delta nerves originating from free nerve endings (Noci receptors) respond to tissue damage.
Primary (SI) and secondary (SII) sensory cortex involved with the localization of pain
Anterior portion of insular is most likely concerned with pain perception
All sensory information is relayed throughout different parts of the brain and our conscious interpretation of the stimuli generates an emotional response which we “feel”.
Our CNS response to stimuli also includes (selective) changes in the (autonomic) sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve pathways; selective changes based on our interpretation of the stimuli.
Fight or Flight Reflexes
- increase BP, metabolism,
Regulate autonomic functions
Learning and memory play a very important role in how we respond to specific stimuli
A “memory” is not a discrete location in the brain made up of a cluster of cells which are independent of other cells.
A “memory” is actually comprised of a “pattern” of nerve-cell activities made up of interconnected nerve cells which are scattered throughout the cerebral cortex. These cells are in turn interconnected to all other brain cells.
We do not remember facts as discrete pieces of independent information.
We have memories of “facts” only in association with other memories.
We develop new memories only in association with existing memories.
New memories are created by rearranging existing patterns of activated nerve cells into new patterns of activity.
This process demands synthesis of new proteins in “some” nerve cells to modify their ability to be activated by other nerves and thereby create a new patterns of activation.
Parts of the brain
that are important
and activates existing
New memory is constructed
based on novel stimulus in
comparison to existing
“Strength” of the memory is
dependent on the frequency
and strength of the neural
The new memory is
activated either through
the “novel” stimulus or
through the associated
We remember facts as pieces of “information” in relation to other pieces of “information” which in turn are related to other …
The most basic connection between behavior and memory is that we desire to perform behaviors which produce responses that we want….if we can’t remember that a particular behavior resulted in a desirable outcome, there is little chance we will seek out to repeat the same behavior.
In addition, if a particular behavior results in an unpleasant experience, there is a strong likelihood that we will avoid that behavior.
On the other hand, if a behavior is not particularly pleasant, but does result in a highly desirable outcome, there is a high likelihood that the unpleasant behavior will be continued in order to get the pleasant payoff.
With greater pleasure, reinforcement can be developed more easily and quickly.
With greater activation of the memory & learning pathways during the behavior, the easier and faster the learning.
With more important desired behaviors, there is greater craving in their absence.
Positive & Negative Feedback
Associations of arousal with environment
Experience or Imagination?