a textbook view of sexual behavior anatomy l.
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A “Textbook” View of Sexual-Behavior Anatomy. The Nervous System. nervous system responsible for communication between us and environment among regions of the body coordinates and integrates information regulates activity; maintains homeostasis memory & consciousness.

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Presentation Transcript
the nervous system
The Nervous System
  • nervous system responsible for communication
    • between us and environment
    • among regions of the body
  • coordinates and integrates information
  • regulates activity; maintains homeostasis
  • memory & consciousness
slide4
Nervous system has unique organization
    • functional and structural
  • Functional Organization

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS

SYSTEM

CENTRAL NERVOUS

SYSTEM

  • brain
  • spinal cord
  • cranial nerves
  • spinal nerves

integration & control

communication (signaling)

slide6

D

A nerve cell

showing

dendrites and

an incoming

axon.

A

D

slide7

Histology slide

illustrating

the physical

layout of some

nerves.

limbic system of the brain
Limbic System of the Brain

The limbic system is responsible for generating our emotional feelings (pleasure, frustration, anger) based on our cognitive interpretation of our environment

slide12
Sensory Areas

sensory association cortex

posterior to primary

integrate inputs

sensory memory

visual cortex

occipital lobe

maps visual space

association area interprets

auditory

temporal lobe

hearing

sound perception

olfactory

frontal above orbit

pain vs pleasure
Pain vs. Pleasure

Sensory areas of the brain receive input from nerve fibers which originate from different types of receptors (touch, visual, auditory, pain, taste).

Sensory nerves originating from Pacinian corpuscles in the skin (mechanoreceptors) respond to touch.

A-delta nerves originating from free nerve endings (Noci receptors) respond to tissue damage.

reflexes
Reflexes
  • Independent level of neural integration
    • acts without brain control
    • rapid predictable motor response
  • components
    • receptor
    • sensory neuron
    • integration center:
      • monosynaptic, polysynaptic
      • motor neuron
    • effector
slide17

All sensory information is relayed throughout different parts of the brain and our conscious interpretation of the stimuli generates an emotional response which we “feel”.

Our CNS response to stimuli also includes (selective) changes in the (autonomic) sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve pathways; selective changes based on our interpretation of the stimuli.

sympathetic n s
Sympathetic N.S.

Fight or Flight Reflexes

- increase BP, metabolism,

CNS activity

Regulate autonomic functions

parasympathetic n s
craniosacral motor nerves

synapse in wall of organ

vegetative functions

internal housekeeping, recovery, rest

G.I. activity

digestive organs

inhibit brain & muscle

Parasympathetic N.S.
memory
Memory

A “memory” is not a discrete location in the brain made up of a cluster of cells which are independent of other cells.

A “memory” is actually comprised of a “pattern” of nerve-cell activities made up of interconnected nerve cells which are scattered throughout the cerebral cortex. These cells are in turn interconnected to all other brain cells.

memory learning
Memory/Learning

We do not remember facts as discrete pieces of independent information.

We have memories of “facts” only in association with other memories.

We develop new memories only in association with existing memories.

memory learning24
Memory/Learning

New memories are created by rearranging existing patterns of activated nerve cells into new patterns of activity.

This process demands synthesis of new proteins in “some” nerve cells to modify their ability to be activated by other nerves and thereby create a new patterns of activation.

learning
Learning

Parts of the brain

that are important

for learning.

learning26
Learning

Hippocampus coordinates

environmental stimuli

and activates existing

memory.

learning27
Learning

New memory is constructed

based on novel stimulus in

comparison to existing

memory.

“Strength” of the memory is

dependent on the frequency

and strength of the neural

activity.

learning28
Learning

The new memory is

activated either through

the “novel” stimulus or

through the associated

memory.

memory29
Memory

We remember facts as pieces of “information” in relation to other pieces of “information” which in turn are related to other …

slide30

Memory / Learning / Behavior

The most basic connection between behavior and memory is that we desire to perform behaviors which produce responses that we want….if we can’t remember that a particular behavior resulted in a desirable outcome, there is little chance we will seek out to repeat the same behavior.

In addition, if a particular behavior results in an unpleasant experience, there is a strong likelihood that we will avoid that behavior.

On the other hand, if a behavior is not particularly pleasant, but does result in a highly desirable outcome, there is a high likelihood that the unpleasant behavior will be continued in order to get the pleasant payoff.

memory learning behavior
Memory / Learning / Behavior

With greater pleasure, reinforcement can be developed more easily and quickly.

With greater activation of the memory & learning pathways during the behavior, the easier and faster the learning.

With more important desired behaviors, there is greater craving in their absence.

slide32

Apply Learning and Memory to Sexual Behavior

Positive & Negative Feedback

Authority figures

Beliefs

Peers

Associations of arousal with environment

Experience or Imagination?