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System Development

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  1. System Development Dr. John Sum Institute of Electronic Commerce National Chung Hsing University EC Websites Development

  2. Reference • K.Laudon and J.Laudon, Management Information Systems, 9th ed., Prentice Hall, 2006. EC Websites Development

  3. Business Processes, IS/Websites and IT EC Websites Development

  4. Example 1: Travelocity.COM EC Websites Development

  5. Example 1: Travelocity.COM • Services support • Car rental information • Room rate enquiries, on-line hotel room booking • Flight ticket enquires, on-line flight ticket booking • Tour schedule enquires, on-line tour booking • Users • General public (which customer segment) • Administration (which departments, which roles) • Technical support (Webmaster, etc) • Suppliers? EC Websites Development

  6. Example 2: Global-Trade.COM EC Websites Development

  7. Example 3: iSteelAsia.COM EC Websites Development

  8. Example 4: Forbes.COM EC Websites Development

  9. Website and Information System • A website is simply a part of the company’s information system • K.Laudon and J.Laudon, Management Information Systems, 9th ed., Prentice Hall, 2006 Definition: An information system is a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store, and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization. EC Websites Development

  10. Business Processes Information Systems Information Technologies Processes, IS and IT • Information technologies provide the infrastructure and support to build an information system. EC Websites Development

  11. 公司營運(Business Processes) Business Management Adminstration CRM SCM Mgt Info. System Information Management DB Internet SW Tech HW Tech OS Information Technologies EC Websites Development

  12. Information Technologies • Software technologies • Including operating systems and DBMS • MS Words improves the quality of management reports • Window XP controls operation of a computer • JDK provides platform for developing web application • Hardware technologies • Mobile phone support mobile data transfer • 802.11 provides the standard for wireless local area networks • USB flash memory provides an alternative way to store information EC Websites Development

  13. Information Technologies • System development • Object-oriented development • Component-based development • Unified modeling language • Other technologies • Artificial Intelligence • Parallel processing architecture • Optimization algorithm EC Websites Development

  14. Bar code scanner (IO) Overhead project (IO) Camera (IO) Telephone (IO, Com.) FAX machine (IO, Com.) Computer (Terminal) Calculator (Calculation) Palm/PDA (IO, DB) Mobile phone (Com.) Optic fibers (Com.) Virtual private network (Com.) Internet (Com) Web technology (System) Mobile agent (System) Rational Rose UML (Development) Information Technologies EC Websites Development

  15. Prog. Lang. Assembly C/C++ Java JavaScript Java Servlet/Applet Java Network Programming Visual Basic/VBScript Perl HTML/DHTML/XML Operating Systems MS Window Unix Linux Database System IBM DB2 MS Access Oracle Sybase MySQL Information Technologies EC Websites Development

  16. Information Technologies • The world is moving. So, many new technologies are coming. • Mobile computing • Grid computing • P2P networks (BT, Gnutella, SKYPE) • Chinese computing • Biometric • Autonomic computing • Search IBM.COM for more EC Websites Development

  17. Information Technologies • Mobile Computing • A type of computing model in which the computers can be networked together even the computers are moving anywhere. • How to connect? How to share resource? • Autonomic computing • A type of computing model in which the system is self-healing, self-configured, self-protected and self-managed. EC Websites Development

  18. Information Technologies • Each technology has its own limitation • Security problems • Programming difficulties • Training – programmer or user • Version problem – Window 95/98/2000/XP • User account support • Transparency – Window versus Linux • Maintenance and Support EC Websites Development

  19. Information Technologies • Development team should have enough knowledge to select the appropriate technologies for the system. • Does a development team should learn all these technologies, such as Java, Ajax, RSS Feed, etc.? EC Websites Development

  20. Types of Information Systems • By management level (Conventional Approach) • Transaction processing system (operational) • Management information system • Decision support system • Executive information system (Strategic) • Education levels and computer usage skills? EC Websites Development

  21. Types of Information Systems EC Websites Development

  22. Types of IS: Conventional EC Websites Development

  23. Types of IS: Contemporary EC Websites Development

  24. Types of IS: Contemporary • Where should the “website” (or websites) be located? • What business process (or processes) should it support? • Business operations = Business logic = Business processes. All three terms will be used interchangeably. EC Websites Development

  25. Conventional Designed in a way to fit in the operations of a business unit. Different department will have a different system. Scope of the system is smaller. Analysis and design are simpler. Easy to maintain. Contemporary Designed in a way to fit in the operations of the whole enterprise. Processes or services oriented. Scope of the system is huge. Analysis and design are complicated ? Difficult to maintain ? Conventional VS Contemporary EC Websites Development

  26. Global Changes EC Websites Development

  27. Changes in Information Management • Factors leading to the changes • Business environment • Management Practice • Technologies • Disaster • Misc EC Websites Development

  28. Changes in Information Management • Business environment • Moving towards Asia, then possibly SE Asia and Latin America • Globalization • Management • Total quality management • Customer satisfaction • Cost-effective EC Websites Development

  29. Changes in Information Management • Technologies • Wired to wireless • Powerful PC, notebook, mobile phone, PDA • Disaster • 911 Attack • Earthquake • Tsunami • Misc • Energy • Water, Air • Food EC Websites Development

  30. Changes in Information Management • Implications • Change in the information requirement • Hourly data versus daily data • Multiple languages • Change in culture and habit of using computer • Hardcopy document versus web document • Fixed line telephone versus Internet phone (Skype) • Change in the volume/speed of information flow • Change in the cost and profit of a company EC Websites Development

  31. Changes in Information Management • Implications • Customer-oriented thinking (customer controls everything) • Need of disaster recovery plan • Corporate social responsibility • Technologies are cheaper and cheaper • Profit margin is decreasing (Don’t expect too much on earning) • Install new system or using new technology is not for making money, just for surviving in the industry. EC Websites Development

  32. Business Environment EC Websites Development

  33. Business Environment (80’s – 90’s) EC Websites Development

  34. Business Environment (00’s – 08’s) EC Websites Development

  35. Business Environment (Beyond 2008) What would it be? EC Websites Development

  36. Business Environment (Beyond 2008) EC Websites Development

  37. What Have Not Changes? • System is still in a supporting role (not a decision role) of a company. • System itself does not accounted for making money, but the products or services that the company provides. • System itself does not accounted for profitable, but the business processes that the system supports. EC Websites Development

  38. Overview of Systems Development EC Websites Development

  39. Key Concepts in Systems Development • Initiating a systems development • Participants involved in a SD project • Reasons for having a new system • Information systems planning • High level system requirement • Feasibility analysis (Financially and technologically) • Selection of system development model • Objectives and schedule for SD EC Websites Development

  40. Key Concepts in Systems Development • Build the system (System Development) • Detail analysis – Precise system requirements (user accepted), a list of user acceptance tests • System design – modules, interfacing amongst modules, hardware requirements, programming language, OS • Coding • In-house testing – unit test, system test, stress test • User acceptance test EC Websites Development

  41. Participants in Systems Development EC Websites Development

  42. Participants in Systems Development • Stakeholders • Individuals who either themselves or through the organization are beneficiaries of the systems development effort. • Users • Individuals who interact with the system regularly • System Analyst • Professional who specializes in analyzing and designing business systems. • Programmers • Individual responsible for modifying or developing programs to satisfy user requirements. EC Websites Development

  43. Management Team Application of IT Business Process Staff, Clients Suppliers Business Process EC Websites Development

  44. Reasons to Initiate a Development Project EC Websites Development

  45. Critical and difficult task Planning Information Systems Planning The translation of strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives. Creative Analysis The investigation of new approaches to existing problems. EC Websites Development

  46. Critical and difficult task One approach, not universal Planning Critical Analysis The unbiased and careful questioning of whether system elements are related in the most effective or efficient ways. EC Websites Development

  47. Planning • Design objectives • Performance objectives • Quality or usefulness of the output • The speed at which the output is generated • Cost objectives • Development costs • Costs related to the uniqueness of the system application • Fixed investments in hardware and related equipment • On-going operating costs of the system EC Websites Development

  48. Planning • Challenges • We would like to have a website for IEC. • We would like to have a website for IEC, which is similar to the following: • www.ucla.edu • www.anderson.ucla.edu • www.cism.kingston.ac.uk • www.igec.umbc.edu • We would like to have a website for IEC, with design, outlook and functions similar to the above. EC Websites Development

  49. System Development Model • Waterfall model • Spiral Model • Component-based Development • Prototyping • Rapid Application Development • Others EC Websites Development

  50. Waterfall Model Systems Investigation Problems and opportunities are identified Systems Analysis Existing systems and work processes are studied Systems Design Defines how the information system will do what it must do to solve the problem. EC Websites Development