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SMART GRID COMMUNICATION SECURITY. EE5970 Computer Engineering Seminar Professor : Dr. Zhuo feng. OVERVIEW. Introduction History Why do we need cyber security How do we achieve it Summary Conclusion . What is smart grid.

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smart grid communication security

SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONSECURITY

EE5970 Computer Engineering Seminar

Professor : Dr. Zhuo feng

overview
OVERVIEW
  • Introduction
  • History
  • Why do we need cyber security
  • How do we achieve it
  • Summary
  • Conclusion

Cyber security for smart grid

what is smart grid
What is smart grid
  • Smart grids – add communication capabilities and intelligence to traditional grids
  • What enables smart grids
  • Intelligent sensors and actuators
  • Extended data management system
  • Expanded two way communication between utility operation system facilities and customers
  • Network security

Cyber security for smart grid

primary objectives of smart grids
Primary objectives of smart grids
  • National integration
  • Self healing and adaptive –Improve distribution and transmission system operation
  • Allow customers freedom to purchase power based on dynamic pricing
  • Improved quality of power-less wastage
  • Integration of large variety of generation options

Cyber security for smart grid

economic and social benefits of smart grids
Economic and social benefits of smart grids
  • Provide Customer Benefits
  • Reduce Peak Demand
  • Increase Energy Conservation & Efficiency
  • Reduce Operating Expenses
  • Increase Utility Worker Safety
  • Improve Grid Resiliency and Reliability
  • Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  • Promote Energy Independence
  • Promote Economic Growth & Productivity

Cyber security for smart grid

need to automate
Need to automate

Cyber security for smart grid

transformation from mechanical relays to microprocessors
Transformation from mechanical relays to microprocessors

GE CFD

Intel 4004

Cyber security for smart grid

intelligent electronic devices ied explosion
Intelligent electronic devices (IED)explosion
  • Protection relay
  • Auxiliary relay
  • Cheap contractors
  • Remote terminal units
  • Circuit breaker monitor
  • Revenue meters
  • Solar flare detectors
  • Power quality monitors
  • Phasor measurement units
  • Communication processors
  • Communication alarm etc

Cyber security for smart grid

telecontrol
Telecontrol
  • SCADA (North America)
  • Different protocols for different operations
  • Proprietary protocols (more than 100)
  • Modbus
  • DNP
  • IEC61850

Cyber security for smart grid

scada protocols list not complete list
SCADA Protocols list (Not complete list )
  • Siemens quad 4 meter
  • CONITEL 2000
  • CONITEL 2100
  • CONITEL 3000
  • CONITEL 300
  • HARRIS 5000
  • HARRIS 5600
  • HARRIS 6000
  • UCA 2.0 or MMS
  • PG & E 2179
  • MODBUS
  • DNP3
  • ICCP
  • IEC 61850

Cyber security for smart grid

few existing general protocols
Few existing general protocols
  • MODBUS -Primitive with no security and not very extensible
  • DNP3 –Advanced SCADA protocol
  • DNP1 and 2 are proprietary protocols
  • IEC 61850 the most used protocol for new implementations
  • ICCP

Cyber security for smart grid

architecture of smart grids14
Architecture of smart grids

Cyber security for smart grid

Source : Fluke corporation

communication media used for smart grids 1
Communication media used for smart grids[1]
  • Urge for new FCC allocation for smart grids
  • PLC –Power line carriers
  • Ethernet
  • WLAN
  • Zigbee
  • Bluetooth
  • Optical fiber
  • Microwave etc

Cyber security for smart grid

priority and types of information
Priority and types of information

Cyber security for smart grid

Communication model , source: NIST Vol 1

slide18
Why ?
  • Network security is a priority and not a add on for smart grids
  • Protecting control center alone - not enough
  • Remote acess to devices
  • Qos requirement from security system
  • Safety (line worker public and equipment)
  • Reliability and availability

Cyber security for smart grid

physical manifestation
Physical Manifestation

Source : YouTube

Cyber security for smart grid

different communication systems 4
Different communication systems[4]

Cyber security for smart grid

adversaries 5
Adversaries[5]
  • Nation states
  • Hackers
  • Terrorist /Cyber terrorists
  • Organized crime
  • Other criminal elements
  • Industrial competitors
  • Disgruntled employees
  • Careless and poorly trained employees

Cyber security for smart grid

classification of attacks
Classification of attacks
  • Component based attacks
  • Protocol based attack

Cyber security for smart grid

component based attack stuxnet
COMPONENT BASED ATTACK -STUXNET
  • Specifically programmed to attack scada and could reprogram PLC’s
  • Zero day attack
  • Highly complex
  • 0.5 Mb file transferred able to multiply
  • Targets- Iran nuclear plants ,Process plants in Germany and ISRO India

Source: wikipedia

Cyber security for smart grid

scada attacks
SCADA attacks
  • Internal attacks
    • Employee
    • Contractor
  • External attacks
    • Non specific- malware , hackers
    • Targeted
      • Special knowledge – former insider
      • No special knowledge –hacker terrorist
    • Natural disaster
    • Manmade disasters

Cyber security for smart grid

scada vulnerability points
Scada vulnerability points
  • Unused telephone line – war dialing
  • Use of removable media – stuxnet
  • Infected Bluetooth enabled devices
  • Wi-Fi enabled computer that has Ethernet connection to scada system
  • Insufficiently secure Wi-Fi
  • Corporate LAN /WAN
  • Corporate web server email servers internet gateways

Cyber security for smart grid

cyber attacks on scada
CYBER ATTACKS ON SCADA
  • Web servers or SQL attacks
  • Email attacks
  • Zombie recruitment
  • DDOS attacks

Cyber security for smart grid

protocol based attacks
Protocol based attacks
  • All protocols runs on top of IP protocol and IP protocol has its own set of weakness
  • DNP3 implements TLS and SSL encryption which is weak
  • The protocol is vulnerable to out-of-order, unexpected or incorrectly formatted packets
  • A significant weakness for IEC 61850 is that it maps to MMS (Manufacturing message specification)as the communications platform, which itself has a wide range of potential vulnerabilities

Cyber security for smart grid

unique security challenges in smart grids
Unique security challenges in smart grids
  • Scale
  • Legacy devices
  • Field location
  • Culture of security through obscurity
  • Evolving standards and regulations

Cyber security for smart grid

slide30
How ?
  • Security by obscurity
  • Trust no one
  • Layered security framework
  • Efficient firewall
  • Intrusion detection
  • Self healing security system

Cyber security for smart grid

key management 1
Key management[1]
  • Issue of key management – Scale
  • PKI with trusted computing elements- considerable amount of security
  • Embedded computing Vs general purpose computing

Cyber security for smart grid

basic pki infrastructure 1
Basic PKI Infrastructure [1]

Cyber security for smart grid

issues with pki 3
Issues with PKI[3]
  • Updating the keys
  • Parameter generation
  • Key distribution
  • Staffing for key management

Cyber security for smart grid

types of security 1
Types of security[1]
  • Reactive Vs Proactive security
  • Reactive
    • Incident response plan
    • Applied for general purpose computers more
  • Proactive Security for embedded computers
  • High assurance boot
  • Secure software validation
  • Secure association termination if found infected
  • Device assertation

Cyber security for smart grid

incidence response plan 1
Incidence response plan[1]

Cyber security for smart grid

weighing factor for password policy
Weighing factor for password policy

Cyber security for smart grid

calculations of vulnerability index
Calculations of vulnerability index
  • Leaf VI : max( total countermeasures implemented /total countermeasures available x ω , ω x weighing factor of password policy)
  • Scenario vulnerability index : Product of its leaf vulnerability indices
  • System vulnerability index is the max of all scenario vulnerabilities indices

Cyber security for smart grid

use of attack trees to assess security
Use of attack trees to assess security

Cyber security for smart grid

summary
Summary
  • Different security constraints that makes securing smart grids a difficult problem
  • Several highly efficient adversaries
  • Use existing protocols like IP with known vulnerabilities and work around to using new protocols with unknown vulnerabilities
  • Use of layered security architecture and attack tree’s for efficient security and risk assessment

Cyber security for smart grid

groups working on smart grids
Groups working on smart grids
  • UCA International user group
    • www.ucaiug.org
  • International electrochemical commission
    • www.iec.ch
  • Electric power research institute
    • www.epri.com
  • Intelligrid consortium and architecture
    • www.intelligrid.epri.com
  • IEEE smart grid
    • www.smartgrid.ieee.org
  • NIST
    • csrc.nist.gov

Cyber security for smart grid

conclusion
Conclusion
  • 25% of united states already runs smart grids
  • Any tiny vulnerabilities should be not be compromised
  • Scalable and adaptable security system
  • Light weight and self healing capabilities
  • Hybrid between centralized and distributed
  • Impenetrable and fail proof
  • Security should be real time

Cyber security for smart grid

references
References

[1]  Metke, A.R.; Ekl, R.L.; , "Security Technology for Smart Grid Networks," Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on , vol.1, no.1, pp.99-107, June2010 doi: 10.1109/TSG.2010.2046347

[2] Chee-Wooi Ten, Chen-Ching Liu, and Manimaran Govindarasu, "Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for SCADA Systems," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1836-1846, Nov. 2008

[3] Khurana, H.; Hadley, M.; Ning Lu; Frincke, D.A.; , "Smart-Grid Security Issues," Security & Privacy, IEEE , vol.8, no.1, pp.81-85, Jan.-Feb. 2010doi: 10.1109/MSP.2010.49

URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5403159&isnumber=5403138

[4] Dong Wei; Yan Lu; Jafari, M.; Skare, P.; Rohde, K.; , "An integrated security system of protecting Smart Grid against cyber attacks," Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT), 2010 , vol., no., pp.1-7, 19-21 Jan. 2010doi: 10.1109/ISGT.2010.5434767URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5434767&isnumber=5434721

[5] NIST guidelines for smart grid security Vol 1

Cyber security for smart grid