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IOM Nicaragua REINTEGRATION OF RETURNED MIGRANTS: THE EXPERIENCE OF NICARAGUA Regional Seminar on Integration Policy for Immigrants, Refugees, and Returned Migrants San José, Costa Rica – Thursday, February 23, 2012. 1. Contents. A g eneral perspecive of integration and reintegration

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IOM Nicaragua

REINTEGRATION OF RETURNED MIGRANTS:

THE EXPERIENCE OF NICARAGUA

Regional Seminar on Integration Policy for Immigrants, Refugees, and Returned Migrants

San José, Costa Rica – Thursday, February 23, 2012

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Contents

  • A general perspecive of integration and reintegration
  • Key indicators for successful integration
  • Reintegrating migrants in Nicaragua
  • Lessons learned

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integration
INTEGRATION

OBJECTIVES: (The challenge of adopting diversity to maintain unity)

To enable migrants to develop their personal, economic, and social potential.

To ensure that the human rights of migrants are protected and restored.

To reduce alienation and marginalization.

To help establish and maintain social harmony and cohesion.

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INTEGRATION MODELS

Segregation: “No integration” – participation in society is limited, as are their rights.

Assimilation: “One-way integration” – individuals take on the customs and social practices of the prevailing culture.

Multiculturalism: “Integration in several ways” – fostering many cultures in one society.

Integration: “Two-way integration” – a process of incorporating two cultures without any restriction (mutual adaptation).

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Economic Life

The importance of protection in the workplace

Access to self-employment or micro-enterprises

Language training and learning about the culture in the new country

Organizing guidance programmes

Housing

Access to housing

Integration into an urban environment

INDICATORS AND POLICIES FOR

SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATION

  • Health
    • Access to health care
    • Education
    • Access to education for children of migrant workers
    • Two models: integration and separation
    • Civic and Political Life
    • Participation in elections
  • Social Life
    • Granting permanent residence
    • The importance of family reunification
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Reintegration as an Essential Element

in Migration Management

  • The sustainability of reintegration partly depends on the conditions of the return.
  • IOM promotes voluntary assisted return as a mechanism to achieve sustainability because it:
      • Considers the decision of each migrant
      • Ensures respect for human rights
      • Develops actions to avoid stigmatization and a negative impact on reintegration
      • Provides counselling, logistic/financial support, and reintegration
      • A lower cost for receiving countries
      • Integrates government programmes
      • Promotes international cooperation
reintegration of vulnerable migrants the nicaragua experience
Reintegration of Vulnerable Migrants: The Nicaragua Experience
  • Departments selected based on various characteristics: Chinandega, Ocotal, andSomoto)
      • Vulnerable regions (border regions, at the centre of the Americas, affected by natural disasters);
      • Well organized at a local level, including all sectors;
      • An interest – at the municipal, departmental, and inter-institutional level – in addressing the social issues of the population;
      • Favourable conditions to work in coordination with the central level through various organizations, including the Coalition;
      • Political will and commitment to take on the challenge.
specific experiences
SPECIFIC EXPERIENCES

Álvaro (25 years old)

  • LeftNicaragua in 2010, it took him 6 months to reach the Mexico-US border. Captured by the Zeta Group (robbed and beaten). Arrested and deported by immigration officers upon his entry into the US.
  • Immigration referred him to the Mayor’s Office of Chinandega, one of the institutions leading the project. Received health care at the health centre (suffered from malnutrition, spots on the skin, and digestive issues). Integrated into his community working as a promoter.
  • His family(wife and daughter) were incorporated into the reintegration programme and received training (talks, follow-up at school, practical training).
  • Currently runs a barber shop at home(Villa 15 de Julio-Chinandega), and his wife is training as a hairdresser to help him. They are planning on expanding the business, waiting for a loan to be granted through the Mayor’s Office (UsuraCero).
specific experiences1
Specific Experiences

Sonia (22 years old)

  • A friend looked for her to go to work as a household worker in 2009. Since she had 4 children and was unemployed she asked her mother to look after her children and left. Instead of being taken to El Salvador she was taken to Guatemala to work in a bar.
  • She stayed there for almost11 months, cleaning and washing dishes during the day and being prostituted at night. She was able to escape and return to her community of origin. Through the Comisariade la Mujer y la Niñez, where she had filed a report, she learned that the Ministry of Family had a programme to support migrants and their families.
  • She received psychological and health care because she was sick when she returned. Her children received school uniforms and shoulder bags for their books. In addition, she received a food package for 6 months, and her children joined an acting and dance group.
  • She currently runs a local store at home and is doing well. In addition, she sells food upon request and is being supported by her family.
reintegration process
Reintegration Process
  • Intended to stimulate change in the beneficiaries (migrants), facilitating a personal empowerment process to enable them to reintegrate into their families and communities.
  • Three spheres of action are proposed:
key results from the programme for reintegration of migrant populations
Key Results from the Programme for Reintegration of Migrant Populations
  • The social and economic reintegration of migrant populations is being taken on by local governments (Ocotal, Somoto, Chinandega) in the northern border region in Nicaragua.
  • Integrated into existing social programmes (TechoSolidario, ViviendaDigna, Usura Cero, SaludparaTodos, Consejería Escolar, Atenciónpara los más Chiquitos, PromotoríaSolidaria…)
  • Local governments are addressing the needs of vulnerable migrant populations, with their own resources and in coordination with various sectors of the population (government, private sector, local NGOs…)
other social actors addressing migration
Other Social Actors Addressing Migration
  • Local Governments:
      • Take on the protection and assistance of migrant populations, with their own resources and social programmes.
      • Lead local policy-making with various sectors of the population to ensure the sustainability and institutionalization of social programmes to provide protection and assistance to migrant populations.
  • Local Private Enterprises:Coordinate and establish alliances with local governments and NGOs to support the labour and economic reintegration of migrant populations.
local policy
Local Policy
  • As a strategy to ensure the sustainability and institutionalization of programmes to provide protection and assistance to migrant populations.
  • In the process of being developed, with participation of all local sectors (government, NGOs, private sector, education sector, productive sector, health sector…)
  • Including components such as:
      • Information on the risk of irregular migration, migrant smuggling and trafficking;
      • Prevention;
      • Assistance;
      • Protection;
      • Social and economic reintegration.
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LESSPONS LEARNED

  • The integration and reintegration of migrants are essential to an effective migration management and to ensure their active incorporation in the new country.
  • Linking actions prior to departure and reception efforts is essential, in order to strengthen the continuity of the reintegration process.
  • The experiences of migrants are key resources to inform and guide the integration process.
  • The need to involve local authorities and coordinate with them all efforts that are oriented toward the protection of and assistance to migrant populations (in every context).
  • Protecting the human rights and needs of migrants in vulnerable situations is key in developing effective actions for social and economic reintegration.
  • The importance of involving the private sector to collaborate in the migrant protection programme, under the concept of SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF ENTERPRISES.

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…Thank you!

International Organization for Migration (IOM), Nicaragua

iommanaguastaff@iom.int

Telephone: +505 2278 9569 • Fax: +505 2278 9673

Ofiplaza El Retiro, Suite 522, Rotonda El Periodista 150 mts. al sur, Managua

www.iom.int• Facebook: IOMNicaragua

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