introduction to colonization decolonization case studies in modern africa and asia n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Introduction to Colonization & Decolonization: Case Studies in Modern Africa and Asia PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Introduction to Colonization & Decolonization: Case Studies in Modern Africa and Asia

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 37
Download Presentation

Introduction to Colonization & Decolonization: Case Studies in Modern Africa and Asia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

shea-justice
126 Views
Download Presentation

Introduction to Colonization & Decolonization: Case Studies in Modern Africa and Asia

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Introduction to Colonization & Decolonization: Case Studies in Modern Africa and Asia Colonization in 1945

  2. Terms • colonialism: one country’s domination of another country or people, usually achieved through aggressive actions; involves formal political control of one country over another • colony: the territory acquired, usually through aggressive actions • colonization: the act of colonizing • imperialism: similar to colonialism but used more broadly to refer to political or economic control exercised either formally or informally • new imperialism: period of European imperialism involving extension of formal political control in Africa and Asia, 1870-1914 • decolonization: process of granting independence to a colony; refers particularly to the period after WWII when European colonies in Africa and Asia achieved independence

  3. History of Imperialism – Periods: • Imperialism before 1450 • Age of European Exploration & Early Modern European Imperialism (1450-1700) • European Merchant Empires (1700-1815) • Imperialism of Free Trade (1815-1870) • New Imperialism (1870-1914) • Mandates (post-WWI) & Trusts (post-WWII) • Decolonization (1945-1970) • Modern Economic Imperialism & Neocolonialism

  4. I. Imperialism before 1450 • one state attempts to dominate all others through unified system of control • new territories usually adjacent or nearly adjacent to imperial center

  5. Alexander the Great’s Empire, 320 B.C.

  6. Roman Empire, 117 C.E.

  7. Mongol Empire, late 1200s

  8. Ottoman Empire, 1300-1699

  9. Aztec Empire, 1400s-1521

  10. II. Age of European Exploration & Early Modern European Imperialism (1450-1700) • emerging European nation-states compete for political and economic power  drives exploration of and expansion into new lands • extension of formal political control over territories • new territories typically overseas – in S and SE Asia and New World

  11. Why? ECONOMIC/POLITICAL POWER • desire for products • mercantilism – control trade of colonies in order to reap benefits • trade as war

  12. Trading Companies • British East India Company (1600) • Dutch East India Company (1602) • Dutch West India Company (1621)

  13. Why? GOD (i.e. RELIGION)

  14. Who? • Portugal (1415) • Spain • Netherlands, England, France

  15. In 1492 …. … Columbus sailed the ocean blue …

  16. … and the lucky guy ran into a giant heap of dirt in the way of his targeted destination. Result: Spain builds a colonial empire in the so-called “New World.”

  17. Going back a bit to 1488 … Bartholomeu Dias reaches the Cape of Good Hope [And 518 years later, so did I!]

  18. And in 1498… Vasco da Gama rounds the southernmost tip of Africa... … and reaches India via the sea Cape Agulhas

  19. Portuguese Empire, at maximum extent in the 16th c.

  20. Spanish Empire in 1770

  21. Dutch Colonies, 17th c.

  22. British Colonies in North America, 1763-1775

  23. French Colonial Empire Key light blue = first empire of 1600s-1700s; dark blue = second empire, built after 1830

  24. III. European Merchant Empires (1700-1815) • by 18th c. European exploration and expansion resulted in the creation of powerful sea-based empires • world system = area where different cultures are related through commercial and other interactions

  25. 3 world systems North Atlantic South Atlantic Indian Ocean

  26. North Atlantic system • regions: Western Europe, Russia, the Baltic, Scandinavia, Newfoundland, Canada and northeastern USA • colonial powers: French, Dutch, English • main products: timber, fish, fur

  27. South Atlantic system • regions: South and Central America, Brazil, Caribbean, West Africa, southeastern USA • colonial powers: Spanish, Portuguese, English • main products: silver, sugar, tobacco, African slaves, cotton

  28. Indian Ocean system • regions: South and Southeast Asia, East Africa • colonial power: Britain • main products: spices, silk, other luxury goods

  29. IV. Imperialism of Free Trade (1815-1870) • extension of informal influence (namely economic) rather than asserting formal political control • driven by capitalism • product of Industrial Revolution (begins in Britain ca. 1780) • Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776)

  30. “The sun never sets on the British Empire.”

  31. V. New Imperialism (1870-1914) • states resume extending formal political control, not just economic or diplomatic influence • territories acquired in Africa and Asia • still driven by capitalism

  32. Imperialism in Africa, 1914

  33. Imperialism in Asia, 1914

  34. VI. Mandates (post-WWI) & Trusts (post-WWII) • League of Nations mandates – transferred control of German and Ottoman colonies to WWI victors • United Nations Trust Territories – successors to mandates when UN replaced League of Nations in 1946 • colonial power required to set target date for trust’s independence

  35. League of Nations mandates in Africa, the Middle East, and the Pacific

  36. VII. Decolonization (1945-1970)

  37. VIII. Modern Economic Imperialism & Neocolonialism economic domination: the domination by a powerful, usually Western nation of another nation that is politically independent but has a weak economy greatly dependent on trade with the powerful nation