The 4 theoretical frameworks we will address • Psychoanalytic/Identification Theory • Sociobiology • Social Learning Theory • Cognitive Development Theory
Oedipus Comples - Intense attraction to mother - Sees father as rival and feels hostility - Projects these hostile feelings onto the father thus believing that his father sees him asa rival. - Fears his father will castrate him castration anxiety - To resolve this he identifies with his father and stamps out his own desire for mother Results – masculine identification contempt or fear of women strong superego
Electra Complex - Bonded emotionally with mother - Notices her own lack of a penis – penis envy and sense of inferiority - Blames mother for lack of penis and withdraws from her - Replaces her wish for penis with a wish for a child - To obtain child takes her father as a love object and becomes jealous of mother - Gradually realizes she cannot possess her father reestablishes feminine id with mother and tries to be come attractive to other men Results: feminine identification sexual attractiveness as main sorce of self-esteem rejection of clitoral sexuality feelings of inferiority/contempt for other owmen with for child/weak superego
Robert Trivers' Parental Investment Theory • The sexual partner who faces the least investment risk will compete with others for mating opportunities with the partner who faces the most investment risk • The sexual partner who faces the most investment risk will be more discriminating (choosy) about selecting a sexual partner • In this theory, evolution has endowed each gender (sex) with different mating strategies with the overall goal of passing on successfully one's genes.
The Social Learning Theory of Aggression • This social learning theory is presented by Alfred Bandura. According to Bandura, Ross, & Ross (1961), children view adults as role models. So, if an adult engages in aggressive behavior, the child will engage in the same aggressive manner because the child feels that it is "okay" because the "positive role model is doing it. In Bandura, Ross, & Ross's study (1961), a number of children were shown a film of a model beating up a bobo doll, this displayed aggression. A number of children were also in a control group in which they watched a film of a model playing with other toys, in a quiet manner, and ignoring the bobo doll. This model displayed nonaggression to the children.
Social Learning Theory • Children learn gender by modeling, imitation and reinforcement
Cognitive development and Social Learning are similar in that they both agree that children learn their gender identities.Cognitive development and Social Learning differ:1. Social Learning says children are a blank slate and learn through imitation, modeling and reinforcement2. Cognitive development agrees but says that children actively search out their gender and go through stages.