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FOSSILS: REMAINS OR EVIDENCE OF ANCIENT LIFE REMAINS ARE PRESERVED WHEN BURIED BY SEDIMENTS PowerPoint Presentation
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FOSSILS: REMAINS OR EVIDENCE OF ANCIENT LIFE REMAINS ARE PRESERVED WHEN BURIED BY SEDIMENTS

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FOSSILS: REMAINS OR EVIDENCE OF ANCIENT LIFE REMAINS ARE PRESERVED WHEN BURIED BY SEDIMENTS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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FOSSILS: REMAINS OR EVIDENCE OF ANCIENT LIFE REMAINS ARE PRESERVED WHEN BURIED BY SEDIMENTS
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  1. earth sc. ch. 9 FOSSILS: REMAINS OR EVIDENCE OF ANCIENT LIFE • REMAINS ARE PRESERVED WHEN BURIED BY SEDIMENTS • QUICK BURIAL HELPS PRESERVATION • SEDIMENTS PRESERVE HARD PARTS IN SEDIMENTARY ROCK • COMMON ANIMAL REMAINS: BONES, SHELLS, TEETH • COMMON PLANT REMAINS: POLLEN, SEEDS, STEMS • PALEONTOLOGISTS: SCIENTISTS WHO STUDY FOSSILS slide 1

  2. EIGHT TYPES OF FOSSILS • PETRIFIED: LIVING TISSUE TURNED INTO STONE • THE REMAINS ABSORBS WATER WITH DISSOLVED MINERALS • TISSUE SLOWLY DECAYS, LEAVES MINERAL-HARDENED FOSSIL 2. MOLD: HOLLOW IN SEDIMENTARY ROCK FORMED BY AN ORGANISM 3. CAST: COPIES THE SHAPE OF AN ORGANISM WHEN MOLD IS FILLED IN 4. CARBON FILM: THIN LAYER OF CARBON FROM FOSSIL • CARBON FROM CELLS LEFT AFTER DECAY • CREATES IMPRESSION OF ORIGINAL LIVING slide 2

  3. EIGHT TYPES OF FOSSILS (cont.) 5. TRACE FOSSIL: FOSSIL MADE BY OR LEFT BY ANCIENT LIFE • INCLUDES FOOTPRINTS, NESTS, BURROWS, COPULITE • COPULITE: FOSSILIZED ANIMAL DUNG 6. TAR PITS: WATER FILLED DEPRESSIONS OF PETROLEUM DEPOSITS • ANIMALS COME TO DRINK, GET TRAPPED AND DIE • TAR PRESERVES REMAINS OF ANIMALS, PLANTS AND INSECTS • La Brea Tar Pits NEAR Los Angeles MOST WELL KNOWN EXAMPLE 7. AMBER: HARDENED TREE SAP WHICH TRAPS AND PRESERVES INSECTS 8. FREEZING: PRESERVES FLESH AND BONE IN PLACES SUCH AS ALASKA slide 3

  4. FOSSIL RECORD AND EVOLUTION • SHOWS CHANGES IN LIFE, EARTH'S SURFACE OVER TIME • INDICATES THAT FOSSILS CHANGED IN A SPECIFIC SEQUENCE • LIFE FORMS DEVELOP FROM SIMPLE TO COMPLEX • SUPPORTS THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION • EVOLUTION: GRADUAL NATURAL PROCESS IN WHICH LIFE CHANGES • ALLOWS ADAPTATIONS TO CHANGES IN CLIMATE, ENVIRONMENT • EVOLUTION IS A SCIENTIFIC THEORY • THEORY: AN UNPROVEN EXPLANATION BASED ON EVIDENCE slide 4

  5. THE FOSSIL RECORD INDICATES 3 WAYS THE ENVIRONMENT HAS CHANGED 1. INDICATES THAT LIFE HAS CHANGED • MILLIONS OF SPECIES OF LIFE HAVE BECOME EXTINCT, CHANGED • SPECIES: LIFE FORM OF LIFE ABLE TO INTERBREED (PRODUCE YOUNG) • SPECIES MAY BECOME TOO DIFFERENT TO INTERBREED OVER TIME 2. INDICATES THAT THE EARTH’S SURFACE HAS CHANGED • CONTINENTS HAVE MOVED AND CHANGED • MOUNTAIN RANGES, DESSERTS, VOLCANIC FEATURES FORM, DISAPPEAR 3. INDICATES CHANGES IN A LOCAL AND GLOBAL CLIMATES • RAIN & TEMPERATURE PATTENS CHANGE THE ENVIRONMENT • ANTARTICA ONCE A HOT, SWAMPY, RAIN FOREST slide 5

  6. FINDING THE AGE OF FOSSILS 1. ABSOLUTE AGE: NUMBER OF YEARS OLD A FOSSIL BASED ON ITS ATOMS • BASED ON THE ACTUAL MATERIAL OF THE FOSSIL • RADIOACTIVE DATING IS OFTEN USED TO DETERMINE ABSOLUTE AGE 2. RELATIVE AGE: FOSSIL'S AGE RELATIVE TO ROCK LAYERS, OTHER FOSSILS • AGE ESTIMATED BY THE AGE OF KNOW MATERAILS AROUND FOSSIL • LAW OF SUPERPOSITION: STATES THAT TOP ROCK LAYERS ARE YOUNGER AND BOTTOM LAYERS ARE OLDER IN UNDISTURBED ROCK • A LAW IS A REPEATED PROVEN THEORY ACCEPTED AS TRUE • SEDIMENTARY ROCK FORMS LAYERS AS DEBRIS ACCUMULATES • GRAND CANYON: OLDEST FOSSILS ARE AT BOTTOM OF CANYON slide 6

  7. 2. RELATIVE AGE (continued) • IGNEOUS ROCK FORMATIONS HELP FIND RELATIVE AGE • ROCK EXTRUSIONS: YOUNGER THAN ROCK LAYERS THEY COVER • ROCK INTRUSIONS: YOUNGER THAN THE ROCK THEY GO THROUGH • FAULTS: YOUNGER THAN THE ROCK THEY GO THROUGH • INDEX FOSSIL: COMPARISION TOP COMMON, WELL STUDIED FOSSILS • FOSSIL ASSUMED THE SAME AGE AS THOSE FOUND WITH IT • COMMON EXAMPLE : TRILOBITES • UNCONFORMITY: GAP IN THE GEOLOGIC RECORD, OLDER ROCK ON TOP • MAY BE CAUSED BY ROCK MOVEMENT, UPLIFTING • MAY BE CAUSED BY EROSION OF SOFTER TOP LAYERS slide 7

  8. RADIOACTIVE DATING: MEASURE OF THE LOSS OF RADIOACTIVE ENERGY • ALL MATTER IS MADE OF ATOMS • ELEMENTS: MADE OF IDENTICAL ATOMS, 109 KNOW TO EXIST • MOST ATOMS ARE STABLE (NORMALLY DO NOT CHANGE) • FEW UNSTABLE, BREAKDOWN TO FORM OTHER ELEMENTS OVER TIME • RADIOACTIVE DECAY: CHANGE OF UNSTABLE ELEMENTS TO STABLE ONES • OCCURS AT THE SAME UNIQUE RATE FOR EACH UNSTABLE ELEMENT • HALF-LIFE: TIME FOR 1/2 OF THE UNSTABLE ELEMENT TO CHANGE • AN ELEMENT'S HALF-LIFE IS USED TO DETERMINE ITS ABSOLUTE AGE slide 8

  9. OBTAINING ABSOLUTE AGE FROM RADIOACTIVE HALF-LIFE DATING • POTASSIUM 40 (UNSTABLE) TO ARGON (STABLE) HAS A HALF-LIFE OF • 1.3 BILLION YEARS (DATES OLDEST ROCKS) • CARBON 14 ( TO NITROGEN 14) HAS A HALF-LIFE OF ~6,000 YRS (5,730 DATES RECENT FOSSILS) • SEDIMENTARY LAYERS ARE OFTEN DATED BY INTRUSIONS, EXTRUSIONS • HALF-LIFE NOT USUALLY USED TO DATE SEDIMENTARY ROCK LAYERS • SEDIMENTS MAY HAVE ALL DIFFERENT AGES • AGE OF THE EARTH; ABOUT 4.6 BILLION YEARS • OLDEST ROCKS ARE ABOUT 4.0 BILLION YEARS OLD • EARTH'S AGE DERIVED FROM OLDEST MOON ROCKS slide 9

  10. GEOLOGIC TIME: USED TO MEASURE THE HISTORY OF THE EARTH AS A PLANET • GEOLOGIC TIME IS BROKEN INTO 4 HUGE TIME UNITS CALLED ERAS • ERAS ARE MARKED BY DRAMATICALLY DIFFERENT TYPES OF LIFE • DRAMATIC CHANGES IN CLIMATE MAY DRIVEN THESE CHANGES IN LIFE • THE PRECAMBRIAN IS THE LONGEST ERA (88% OF TIME, HAS NO PERIODS) • PALEZOIC, MESOZOIC, AND CENOZOIC ERAS DIVIDED INTO PERIODS • PERIODS HAVE LESS DRAMATIC CHANGES IN LIFE THAN ERAS • PERIODS IN THE CENOZOIC ERA ARE BROKEN IN EPOCHS • EACH NEWER ERA IS SHORTER THAN THE ONE BEFORE IT slide 10

  11. LIFE THROUGHOUT EARTH'S HISTORY THE PRECAMBRIAN ERA: THE LONGEST, BEGAN WITH EARTH'S FORMATION • LAND, ATMOSPHERE DRAMATICALLY DIFFERENT THAN TODAY • ONLY SIMPLE LIFE EXISTED, NO OXYGEN IN ATMOSPHERE • BACTERIA-LIKE ORGANISMS AROSE ABOUT 3.5 BILLION YRS. AGO • 1ST LIFE TO USE PHOTOSYNTHESIS AROSE ABOUT 2.5 BILLION YRS • USED CARBON DIOXIDE, RELEASED OXYGEN • OXYGEN ACCUMULATED IN ATMOSPHERE • OXYGEN-BREATHING CREATURES DEVELOPED (WORMS, SPONGES) slide 11

  12. THE PALEOZOIC ERA: MARKED BY ABUNDANT FOSSIL-FORMING COMPLEX LIFE • INCLUDES THE AGE OF INVERTEBRATES, AGE OF FISH, AGE OF AMPHIBIANS • HAD A TOTAL OF 7 PERIODS, EACH MARKED BY DIFFERENT LIFE FORMS • BEGAN ABOUT 545 MILLION YEARS AGO WITH THE CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION • CAMBRIAN PERIOD: 1ST PALEOZOIC PERIOD, AGE OF INVERTEBRATES • INVERTEBRATES: STILL MOST COMMON LIFE, HAVE NO BACK-BONES • MANY TYPES OF LIFE HAD BONES & SHELLS ALLOWING FOSSILIZATION • FIRST LAND PLANTS AND INSECTS APPEAR NEXT (SILURIAN PERIOD) • PLANTS NEEDED AS BASE OF FOOD CHAIN ON LAND • PHOTOSYNTHESIS CONVERTS SUNLIGHT TO FOOD, MAKE O2 slide 12

  13. PALEOZOIC ERA (continued) • AGE OF FISH (FIRST VERTEBRATES) IN ORDOVICIAN PERIOD • FIRST LIFE FORMS TO HAVE BONY VERTEBRA, SPINAL NERVE • COLD BLOODED, USE GILLS, SCALES , LAY MANY EGGS • FIRST AMPHIBIANS APPEAR IN DEVONIAN PERIOD • SMOOTH SKIN, LAY MANY EGGS, HAVE GILLS AND LUNGS • GO THROUGH LIFE CHANGES CALLED METAMORPHOSIS • HUGE FERNS AND CONIFER FORESTS APPEAR, SOURCE OF COAL & OIL • ENERGY STORED 500 MILLION YRS AGO NOW FUEL (MISS. PER.) • CO2 STORED THEN NOW BEING RELEASED INTO ATMOSPHER E slide 13

  14. PALEOZOIC (continued) • FIRST REPTILES, INSECTS APPEAR IN PENNSYLVANIAN PERIOD • INSECTS: HARD EXOSKELETON, SEGMENTED LEGS, 3 BODY PARTS • REPTILES: DRY SCALY SKIN, EYELIDS, LEATHERY EGGS, SIDE LEGS • PERMIAN PERIOD THE LAST IN PALEOZOIC ERA • PANGEA SUPER-CONTINENT FORMS (ONE SINGLE CONTINENT) • HUGE CRUSTAL PLATES SLIDE ON MANTLE • CONTINENTS’ EDGES ALIGNMENT INDICATE MOVEMNET • FOSSILS FROM WEST AFRICA MATCH OF EAST AMERICAS’ • MASS EXTINCTION (MASS SPECIES DEATH) MAKES THE ERA’S END • KILLS ABOUT 90-95% OF ALL LIFE ON EARTH, IN OCEANS • REPTILES AND FISH AMONG SURVIVORS slide 14

  15. MESOZOIC ERA: PALEOZOIC SURVIVORS FILL ENVIRONMENTAL NICHES • TRIASSIC PERIOD: (~ 245 MILLION YRS AGO) MARKS AGE OF REPTILES • FIRST DINOSAURS APPEAR • FIRST MAMMALS APPEAR: SMALL, SHREW-LIKE NIGHT DWELLERS • JURASSIC: BEGINS THE AGE OF THE DINOSAURS • PANGEA BREAKS APART • FIRST BIRDS, FLYING REPTILES APPEAR • CRETACEOUS: HUGE DINOSAURS RULE EARTH • FIRST FLOWERING PLANTS ( MOST COMPLEX ) APPEAR • ENDS WITH MASS EXTINCTION BELIEVED CAUSED BY COMET • CLIMATE CHANGED, MANY SPECIES BECAME EXTINCT • DINOSAURS EXTINCT, MAMMALS AMONG SURVIVORS slide 15

  16. CENOZOIC ERA: CURRENT ERA, SHORTEST ONE • PERIODS IN CENOZOIC BROKEN DOWN IN SMALLER UNITS CALLED EPOCHS • TERTIARY PERIOD: MARKS THE AGE OF MAMMALS (65 MILLION YRS) • MAMMALS: VERTEBRATES, HAIR, FEED YOUNG MILK, MOST LIVE BIRTH • MAMMALS ARE WARM-BLOODED- ABLE TO MAINTAIN INTERAL TEMP. • QUATERNARY PERIOD: CURRENT ONE, SHORTEST PERIOD • INCLUDES THE AGE OF MAN, 1ST ONES ABOUT 3.5 MILLION YEARS AGO • 1ST PRIMITIVE MAN- HOMO (genus) SAPIENS (species) ~ 100,000 YRS AGO • MODERN MAN DATES BACK ABOUT 40,000 YEARS slide 16

  17. QUARTENARY HAS ICE AGES, HUGE GLACIERS, LOWER OCEAN LEVELS • ICE AGES: COLDER PLANETARY TEMPS TRAPPED WATER IN GLACIERS • ICE AGES OCCUR IN CYCLES, FOLLOWED BY GLOBAL HEATING • GLACIERS: HUGE SECTIONS OF ICE COVERING LAND • GLACIERS COVER MUCH OF NORTHERN CONTINENTS • RETREATING GLACIERS CHANGED LAND IN Pa., N.Y., GREAT PLAINS slide 17

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