gerunds verbal nouns n.
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Gerunds- verbal nouns

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Gerunds- verbal nouns. Consider this sentence. Discere est utilis - to learn is fun or learning is fun The infinitive is functioning as a subject To put discere in any other case than the nominative a gerund is used. Formation.

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consider this sentence
Consider this sentence
  • Discereestutilis- to learn is fun

or learning is fun

  • The infinitive is functioning as a subject
  • To put discere in any other case than the nominative a gerund is used
  • Add the ending – ndi to the stem of 1st, 2nd and 3rd conjugation and
  • Add the ending –endi to the stem of 4thconjugation and 3rd -io
irregular gerunds
Irregular Gerunds
  • Eo, ire- eundi- of going
  • Fero, ferre- ferendi- of carrying/bearing
summary of gerunds
Summary of Gerunds
  • Form by adding-ndito stem of 1/2/3 and –endi to stem of 4/ 3io
  • Conjugate it like a 2nd conjugation neuter
  • The nominative of the gerund is the infinitive- to verb/ verbing
exercise 1 page 340
Exercise 1 page 340
  • Animadverto, ere – to notice

animadvertendi- of noticing

  • Appropinquo, are- to approach

Appropinquandi- of approaching

  • Cerno, ere- to see, distinguish

Cernendi- of seeing

  • Clamo, are- to shout

Clamandi- of shouting

  • Fingo, fingere- to imagine, form in mind

Fingendi- of imagining

  • Impingo, ere- to strike, push

Impingendi- of pushing


7. infligo, infligere- to strike, inflict

infligendi- of striking

8. percutio, percutere-to strike through

percutiendi- of striking through

9. repello, repellere- to thrust back, push back

repellendi- of pushing back

10. rideo, ridere- to laugh, smile

ridendi- of laughing, smiling

11. veho, vehere- to drive, carry

vehendi- of driving, carrying

uses of the gerund
Uses of the gerund
  • Genitive- the gerund is used with nouns or adjetives that take the genitive
    • Studiosus- eager for
      • Eramdiscendistudiosus- I was found of learning
  • Allen & Greenough's NEW LATIN GRAMMAR 504.
    • The Genitive of the Gerund and Gerundive is used after nouns or adjectives, either as subjective or objective genitive:--
  • Used to indicate the purpose of the action
    • Quaero locum aedificando
      • I am looking for a place for building
      • ie: I am looking for a place to build
  • Usually accompanied by the preposition “ad” indicates the purpose of the action
    • Paratus sum ad pugnandum-
    • I am ready for fighting
  • Used for means or instrument
    • Discimuslegendo
    • We learn by reading
exercise 3 translate into english
Exercise 3- Translate into English
  • Consiliumcepiappropinquandi ad oppidum

I made a plan of approaching i.e. to approach

  • Postquamdiucurcumivi, tandem inveni locum descendendo

After I went around for a long time, I finally found a place for descending.

  • Multi amici venerant ad spectandum.

Many friend had come to watch.

  • Apectandointellexi me esse in caelo cum sideribus

By watching I understood that I was in the sky with the stars.

exercise 5
Exercise 5
  • Multi sundstudiosicaelispectandi

Many people are fond of watching the sky.


nicolas was fond of searching into the cave

Sederibuscernendisilleintellexit se esse in caelo.

by seeing constellations he understood that he was in the sky.

gerundive a verbal adjective
Gerundive- a verbal adjective
  • Formed identical to the gerund
  • Is a 1st and 2nd declension adjective
    • Example- parandus, a, um
  • The basic meaning of the gerundive is PASSIVE
    • Puellalaudanda- a girl to be praised
    • Liber legendus- a book to be read
    • Puellaamanda- a girl_________________
if the gerund has a direct object it becomes a gerundive
If the gerund has a direct object it becomes a gerundive
  • Eramstudiosusvidendi-
    • I was eager of seeing ie. I was eager to see.
  • Eramstudiosusvidendaespeluncae-
    • I was eager to see the cave- “for the cave to be seen”
    • Videndae= gerundive modifying speluncae feminine genitive singular
exercise 51
Exercise 5
  • Gerund: Multi suntstudiosispectandi- many are eager of seeing. i.e. many are eager to see

Gerundive: Multi suntstudiosispectandicaeli.