gerunds verbal nouns n.
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Gerunds- verbal nouns. Consider this sentence. Discere est utilis - to learn is fun or learning is fun The infinitive is functioning as a subject To put discere in any other case than the nominative a gerund is used . Formation.

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consider this sentence
Consider this sentence
  • Discereestutilis- to learn is fun

or learning is fun

  • The infinitive is functioning as a subject
  • To put discere in any other case than the nominative a gerund is used
  • Add the ending – ndi to the stem of 1st, 2nd and 3rd conjugation and
  • Add the ending –endi to the stem of 4thconjugation and 3rd -io
irregular gerunds
Irregular Gerunds
  • Eo, ire- eundi- of going
  • Fero, ferre- ferendi- of carrying/bearing
summary of gerunds
Summary of Gerunds
  • Form by adding-ndito stem of 1/2/3 and –endi to stem of 4/ 3io
  • Conjugate it like a 2nd conjugation neuter
  • The nominative of the gerund is the infinitive- to verb/ verbing
exercise 1 page 340
Exercise 1 page 340
  • Animadverto, ere – to notice

animadvertendi- of noticing

  • Appropinquo, are- to approach

Appropinquandi- of approaching

  • Cerno, ere- to see, distinguish

Cernendi- of seeing

  • Clamo, are- to shout

Clamandi- of shouting

  • Fingo, fingere- to imagine, form in mind

Fingendi- of imagining

  • Impingo, ere- to strike, push

Impingendi- of pushing


7. infligo, infligere- to strike, inflict

infligendi- of striking

8. percutio, percutere-to strike through

percutiendi- of striking through

9. repello, repellere- to thrust back, push back

repellendi- of pushing back

10. rideo, ridere- to laugh, smile

ridendi- of laughing, smiling

11. veho, vehere- to drive, carry

vehendi- of driving, carrying

uses of the gerund
Uses of the gerund
  • Genitive- the gerund is used with nouns or adjetives that take the genitive
    • Studiosus- eager for
      • Eramdiscendistudiosus- I was found of learning
  • Allen & Greenough's NEW LATIN GRAMMAR 504.
    • The Genitive of the Gerund and Gerundive is used after nouns or adjectives, either as subjective or objective genitive:--
  • Used to indicate the purpose of the action
    • Quaero locum aedificando
      • I am looking for a place for building
      • ie: I am looking for a place to build
  • Usually accompanied by the preposition “ad” indicates the purpose of the action
    • Paratus sum ad pugnandum-
    • I am ready for fighting
  • Used for means or instrument
    • Discimuslegendo
    • We learn by reading
exercise 3 translate into english
Exercise 3- Translate into English
  • Consiliumcepiappropinquandi ad oppidum

I made a plan of approaching i.e. to approach

  • Postquamdiucurcumivi, tandem inveni locum descendendo

After I went around for a long time, I finally found a place for descending.

  • Multi amici venerant ad spectandum.

Many friend had come to watch.

  • Apectandointellexi me esse in caelo cum sideribus

By watching I understood that I was in the sky with the stars.

exercise 5
Exercise 5
  • Multi sundstudiosicaelispectandi

Many people are fond of watching the sky.


nicolas was fond of searching into the cave

Sederibuscernendisilleintellexit se esse in caelo.

by seeing constellations he understood that he was in the sky.

gerundive a verbal adjective
Gerundive- a verbal adjective
  • Formed identical to the gerund
  • Is a 1st and 2nd declension adjective
    • Example- parandus, a, um
  • The basic meaning of the gerundive is PASSIVE
    • Puellalaudanda- a girl to be praised
    • Liber legendus- a book to be read
    • Puellaamanda- a girl_________________
if the gerund has a direct object it becomes a gerundive
If the gerund has a direct object it becomes a gerundive
  • Eramstudiosusvidendi-
    • I was eager of seeing ie. I was eager to see.
  • Eramstudiosusvidendaespeluncae-
    • I was eager to see the cave- “for the cave to be seen”
    • Videndae= gerundive modifying speluncae feminine genitive singular
exercise 51
Exercise 5
  • Gerund: Multi suntstudiosispectandi- many are eager of seeing. i.e. many are eager to see

Gerundive: Multi suntstudiosispectandicaeli.

passive periphrastic
Passive Periphrastic
  • Gerundive + verb to be
  • Denotes necessecity- “ought,” “must,” “had to,” etc….
  • Examples
    • Puellaestamanda- the girl must be loved
    • Carthagodelendaest- carthage must be destroyed
    • Res factae a nobislaudandaesunt- Our actions (things done by us) must be praised
more examples
More examples
  • Hoc faciendum est
    • this must be done
  • Liber cum curalegendusest
    • the book must be read with care
  • Puerisuntpuniendi-
    • the boys must be punished
dative of agend
Dative of Agend
  • Remember, in a passive sentence, to express the doer, previously the __________case was used
    • Proeliasuntpugnataa hoc duce.
    • Battles must be fought by this leader
    • Ablative of Agent
  • With passive periphrastics, the agent is expressed in the dative
    • Proeliapugnandasuntduci.
      • It is like litterally saying: For the leader are battle to be fought.
examples of dative of agent with passive periphrastics
Examples of Dative of Agent with Passive Periphrastics
  • Hoc tibi faciendum est
    • this must be done by you
  • Liber cum curamihilegendusest
    • the book must be read by me with care
  • Puerimagistrissuntpuniendi-
    • the boys must be punished by the teachers

Less awkward translations are “ok” if done correctly…but I would encourage you with passive periphrastics to stick with the literal translation

  • Hoc tibi faciendum est
    • this must be done by you
    • You must do this.
  • Liber cum curamihilegendusest
    • the book must be read by me with care.
    • I must read the book with care.
  • Puerimagistrissuntpuniendi-
    • the boys must be punished by the teachers.
    • The teachers must punish the boys.
note the passive periphrastic can appear with other tenses of the verb to be
Note- the passive periphrastic can appear with other tenses of the verb “to be”
  • Past- Librilegendierant
    • Books had to be read
  • Future- Librilegendierunt
    • books will have to be read

In my experience these are not as common…

sometimes the pperiphrastic is used impersonally no person is specified
Sometimes the Pperiphrastic is used impersonally- no person is specified.
  • In this case the gerundive is neuter
  • Legendumest-
    • There must be reading
    • People must read
    • One must read
exercise 6 page 347
Exercise 6, page 347

Change the following sentences so that the duty expressed by debeo becomes obligation expressed by the passive periphrastic. Translate the sentences.

  • Amici funembeneteneredebebant.

The friends ought to hold the rope well. The rope must be held well by the friends


  • Funisrumpi non debebat.

The rope ought not to be broken The rope must not be broken

Funis non eratrumpendus.

  • Nicolausmonstrumrepelleredebebat

Nicolaus ought to repell the monster. The monster ought to be repelled by Nicolaus


  • Deinde is illumplanetamfingeredebuit.

Then he had to imagine that planet. Then that planet had to be imagined by him


  • SKIP
  • Nicolaus non debebat in arboremascendere.

Nicolaus ought not to descend into the tree It must not be ascended by Nicolaus into the tree

Nicolao non eratascendum in arborem.

  • Arbores de Nicolaoiudicaredebebant

The trees ought to judge about Nicolaus. It must be judged about Nicolaus by the trees.

Arboribuserat de Nicolaoiudicandum