Big Idea 14 : Organization and Development of Living Organisms - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Big Idea 14 : Organization and Development of Living Organisms

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  1. Big Idea 14 : Organization and Development of Living Organisms Description A. All living things share certain characteristics. B. The scientific theory of cells, also called cell theory, is a fundamental organizing principle of life on Earth. C. Life can be organized in a functional and structural hierarchy. D. Life is maintained by various physiological functions essential for growth, reproduction, and homeostasis.

  2. Benchmark Number & Descriptor SC.6.L.14.1 Describe and identify patterns in the hierarchical organization of organisms from atoms to molecules and cells to tissues to organs to organ systems to organisms. SC.6.L.14.2 Investigate and explain the components of the scientific theory of cells (cell theory): all organisms are composed of cells (single-celled or multi-cellular), all cells come from pre-existing cells, and cells are the basic unit of life. SC.6.L.14.3 Recognize and explore how cells of all organisms undergo similar processes to maintain homeostasis, including extracting energy from food, getting rid of waste, and reproducing. SC.6.L.14.4 Compare and contrast the structure and function of major organelles of plant and animal cells, including cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and vacuoles. SC.6.L.14.5 Identify and investigate the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, excretory, immune, nervous, and musculoskeletal) and describe ways these systems interact with each other to maintain homeostasis. SC.6.L.14.6 Compare and contrast types of infectious agents that may infect the human body, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites.

  3. FROM SMALL TO BIG

  4. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION System of organization where each level helps to build the one above it. The base levels are very simplistic in nature while the upper levels become more complex. Parts of the lower levels are often found in the next sequence. The organization of living things starts with subatomic particles and progress all the way to an organisms ecosystem.

  5. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION SUBATOMIC PARTICLES ATOM • 3 subatomic particles • Proton • Neutron • Electron • These particles make up matter. Smallest unit of an element which has the properties of that element Contains the 3 subatomic particles

  6. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION MOLECULE ORGANELLE A particle composed of at least 2 bonded atoms Each molecule has its own properties. • Structures in cells • Each organelle has a specific job. • Examples: • Nucleolus, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum mitochondria, vacuole, lysosome

  7. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION CELL TISSUE Smallest structure that can perform all the processes necessary for life Organelles are found inside cells. A group of similar cells that perform a specific function.

  8. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION ORGAN ORGAN SYSTEM Your lungs are an organ made up of specialized cells to help exchange gasses. Organs such as the lungs, diaphragm and trachea make up the respiratory system. Different tissues that work together and carry out a specific function create organs. A group of organs that work together to perform a body function create organ systems

  9. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION ORGANISM POPULATION northern fur seals Any living thing All organisms are made up of one or more cells. Organisms of the same species that live in the same place make up a population.

  10. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION COMMUNITY ECOSYSTEM Different populations which share the environment make up communities. An ecosystem includes all of the populations and non-living factors in a particular environment.

  11. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION BIOME HIERARCHY RECAP A large region which has a distinct climate and specific types of ecosystems Biomes exist on both land and sea.

  12. KNOWLEDGE CHECK What is the smallest unit of matter? The smallest unit of life? What are organelles, and where are they found? How are tiny cells related to organ systems found in the body? How are cells related to organisms?

  13. KNOWLEDGE CHECK What is the smallest unit of matter? Atoms The smallest unit of life? Cells What are organelles, and where are they found? Structures with specific functions inside cells How are tiny cells related to organ systems found in the body? Cells make up organs which create organ systems. How are cells related to organisms? Organisms are living things, and living things are made up of cells.

  14. WHERE DID OUR CELLS COME FROM?

  15. THE CELL THEORY • The Cell Theory states: • All living things are made up of cells. • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. • Living cells come from only living cells.

  16. CELL THEORY ROBERT HOOKE ANTON VON LEEUWENHOEK • Discovered the first cells • 1665 looked at a slice of cork through a microscope • Saw tiny room-like structures • Cells • The cells he saw were actually dead plant cell walls. • Used a simple microscope to look at blood, rainwater, and teeth scrapings • Discovered the first one celled living things • Examples of these were bacteria and paramecium

  17. CELL THEORY LIVING THINGS CELL FUNCTION • All living things are made up of tiny cells. • All living things are able to: • Move • Perform complex activities • Grow and develop • Respond to stimulus • Reproduce • Without specialized cells, these processes would not occur.

  18. CELL THEORY CELLS FROM LIVING THINGS • Francesco Redi proved that cells do not come from non-living things. • Cells come only from living things. • His work disproved the Theory of Spontaneous Generation • Life could spring form non-living matter.

  19. CELL THEORY UNICELLULAR MULTICELLULAR • Living things that contain only one cell • This unicellular organism can perform all of the functions that a larger organism with multiple cells can. • Examples: • Bacteria • Algae • Some organisms can contain hundreds, millions even trillions of cells. • Humans have an estimated 6 trillion cells. • Most cells in these organisms have specialized functions.

  20. KNOWLEDGE CHECK What are the 3 factors in the Cell Theory? Who are the first two scientists credited with the discovery of cells? List 3 cell functions. What does spontaneous generation mean?

  21. KNOWLEDGE CHECK • What are the 3 factors in the Cell Theory? All living things are made up of cells; cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things; living cells come from only living cells. • Who are the first two scientists credited with the discovery of cells? Robert Hooke, Anton Von Leeuwenhoek • List 3 cell functions. Releasing energy from food; getting rid of body wastes; making new cells for growth and repair • What does spontaneous generation mean? Living organisms can come from non-living things.

  22. STAYING ALIVE

  23. Homeostasis • In order for cells to function properly, conditions inside the cell must maintain constant even if outside factors change. • Cells must keep the proper concentration of nutrients and water and eliminate wastes. • The cell membrane is selectively permeable. • It will allow some things to pass through while blocking other things.

  24. Homeostasis CELL MEMBRANE The cell membrane allows certain things to enter and leave a cell. Its function is to keep certain items outside the cell and certain items inside the cell. It is able to do this because it is semipermeable.

  25. Weeee!!! high low CONTROL OF MATERIALS IN & OUT PASSIVE TRANSPORT • Movement of substances through the cell membrane without the use of cellular energy • EXAMPLES: • Diffusion • Facilitated Diffusion • Osmosis

  26. CONTROL OF MATERIALS IN & OUT DIFFUSION ANIMATION Molecules move from a crowded area to a less crowded area. Diffusion occurs with gasses and liquids. When molecules are evenly spread out, equilibrium has been reached. Molecules never stop moving; they continue to move but maintain equilibrium. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_diffusion_works.html

  27. CONTROL OF MATERIALS IN & OUT FACILITATED DIFFUSION ANIMATION • Diffusion of specific particles through transport proteins found in the membrane • Transport Proteins are specific – they “select” only certain molecules to cross the membrane. • Transports larger or charged molecules http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_facilitated_diffusion_works.html

  28. CONTROL OF MATERIALS IN & OUT OSMOSIS ANIMATION Diffusion of water through the cell membrane Important processes because it keeps water in and around the cells. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_osmosis_works.html

  29. This is gonna be hard work! high low CONTROL OF MATERIALS IN & OUT ACTIVE TRANSPORT • Energy is needed for the movement of substances through the cell membrane. • Proteins attach to the needed particles and uses energy to move through the cell membrane. • Once through, the protein leaves and picks up another particle. • Examples: • Endocytosis • Exocytosis

  30. CONTROL OF MATERIALS IN & OUT ENDOCYTOSIS EXOCYTOSIS ANIMATION: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120068/bio02.swf::Endocytosis%20and%20Exocytosis Cell membrane folds around the protein and pulls it into the cell. “cell eating” Forms food vacuole & digests food This is how white blood cells eat bacteria! Forces material out of cell Membrane surrounding the material fuses with cell membrane and releases the material. ex: Hormones or wastes released from cell

  31. KNOWLEDGE CHECK What part of the cell allows homeostasis to occur? List and describe two forms of passive transport. List and describe two forms of active transport.

  32. KNOWLEDGE CHECK What part of the cell allows homeostasis to occur? Cell Membrane List and describe two forms of passive transport. Diffusion: transporting specific substances through the cell membrane; Osmosis: diffusion of water through the cell membrane. List and describe two forms of active transport. Endocytosis: Process of pulling large particles into the cell using energy Exocytosis: Releasing large particles from the cell using energy

  33. TRAPPING ENERGY FOR LIFE CHEMICAL ENERGY LIVING THINGS Without energy, cells cannot perform their designated function. Cells take chemical energy stored in foods. Total of all chemical reactions in an organism = Metabolism • Producers: • Organisms that make their own food by the process of photosynthesis • Consumers: • Organisms that cannot make their own food but instead rely on producers and other consumers

  34. TRAPPING ENERGY FOR LIFE RELEASING ENERGY FOR LIFE • Cells must break down food molecules and release the energy. • Cellular Respiration • Glucose is the food that is mostly broken down. • Mitochondria, an organelle in the cell, breaks down food for energy.

  35. Light energy ECOSYSTEM Photosynthesisin chloroplasts Organicmolecules CO2 + H2O + O2 Cellular respirationin mitochondria ATP powers most cellular work Heatenergy Figure 9.2 TRAPPING ENERGY FOR LIFE RESPIRATION • The process by which cells break down food sources such as glucose, fats, and protein and release their stored energy • Two main types • Anaerobic – no oxygen required • Aerobic – requiring oxygen • Energy produced is in the form of ATP and adenosine triphosphate

  36. TRAPPING ENERGY FOR LIFE AEROBIC RESPIRATION • Respiration which takes place in the presence of oxygen • Formula: • C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP)

  37. TRAPPING ENERGY FOR LIFE ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION • Respiration which takes place in the absence of oxygen • Fermentation • Release of energy from glucose without the presence of oxygen • Releases less energy then aerobic respiration • If fermentation occurs in cells, lactic acid is produced in muscles.

  38. KNOWLEDGE CHECK What is the difference between a producer and a consumer? What is the chemical process of breaking down food and releasing energy? What is a by-product of anaerobic respiration?

  39. KNOWLEDGE CHECK What is the difference between a producer and a consumer? Producers can make their own foods through the process of photosynthesis. Consumers cannot make their own food and must rely on eating other producers/consumers for energy. What is the chemical process of breaking down food and releasing energy? Respiration What is a by-product of anaerobic respiration? Lactic acid (fermentation)

  40. REPRODUCING • As living things become older, they usually become larger in size. • Cells themselves do not grow bigger in size; instead, they multiply in large numbers. • In order for survival, cells must be able to reproduce themselves, quickly and easily. • The process of cell division is known as MITOSIS. • Process in which the nucleus of the cell divides and the formation of two daughter cells occur

  41. Mitosis • Interphase • Normal functions • Upon trigger, chromosomes & centriolesduplicate. • Prophase • Early: nuclear envelope degrades; chromosomes start to condense. • Late: chromosomes thicken; spindle forms between centrioles. • Metaphase • Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores. • Chromosomes line up at cell equator. sdst.org/shs/apbio/... /mitosispowerpoint.ppt

  42. Mitosis • Anaphase • Chromatids separate at centromeres. • Chromosomes move to poles. • Telophase • Nuclear envelope reforms in each of two daughter cells. • Cytokinesis separates two new cells. • Interphase • Daughter cells are genetically identical to each other and the parent cell but smaller. sdst.org/shs/apbio/... /mitosispowerpoint.ppt

  43. KNOWLEDGE CHECK MATCH THE FOLLOWING PHASES WITH THEIR DESCRIPTIONS: Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telephase Interphase Daughter cells are genetically identical to each other. Chromatid arms move to opposite ends of cell. Chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Chromosomes line up in center of cell. Cytoplasm is divided between two cells. Spindle fibers and centrioles duplicate.

  44. KNOWLEDGE CHECK MATCH THE FOLLOWING PHASES WITH THEIR DESCRIPTIONS: Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telephase Interphase Daughter cells are genetically identical to each other. Chromatid arms move to opposite ends of cell. Chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Chromosomes line up in center of cell. Cytoplasm is divided between two cells. Spindle fibers and centrioles duplicate.

  45. WHAT’S INSIDE THESE LITTLE THINGS?

  46. Cell Organelles • PLANT CELLS Cytoplasm-gel like substance found in a cell Chloroplasts-a green structure in a plant Cell Wall-a stiff covering that protects plant cells Nucleus-control center of the cell Chromosomes-provides direction for cell to follow Endoplasmic Reticulum-transportation network Mitochondrion-produces energy in the cell Vacuole-cell storage sac for food, waste, and water

  47. Cell Organelles ANIMAL CELLS Vacuole-cell storage sac for food, waste, and water Mitochondrion –produces energy in a cell Chromosomes-provides direction for cells to follow Nucleus-control center of a cell Endoplasmic Reticulum--transportation system Cytoplasm-gel like substance found in a cell Cell Membrane-surrounds cell material

  48. Cell Organelles • Plants and animals cells have many of the same type of structures. These structures perform the same type of activities. • Plants and animals cells have some structures that are not the same. These structures perform different activities but necessary to its particular cell. • Cell Wall – found in plant not animal cells • Chloroplasts – used in photosynthesis - found in plant not animal cells

  49. CELL CITY • A cell’s organelles function just like the parts of a city. • Without them, communication, transportation, and everything else would crumble.

  50. CELL CITY Cell Organelles City Analogies Cell Membrane Cell Wall Cytoplasm Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes Golgi Bodies Chloroplasts Nuclear Membrane Mitochondria Nucleus DNA RNA Nucleolus Lysosomes Vacuole Protoplasm Chromosomes Proteins City Border City Wall Lawns Highway  or road system Lumber or brick yard Post Office or UPS Solar Energy Plants City Hall Fence with security guard Energy Plants City Hall Original Blueprints of the city Copies of Blueprints Copy Machine Waste Disposal/ Recyclers Warehouses, water towers, or garbage dumps Air or atmosphere Rolled up blueprints Lumber or bricks