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Living organisms

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  1. Living organisms INTERACTIVE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS The answers are provided. Explanations of why the alternatives are unsatisfactory are also offered

  2. These multiple choice questions are similar to the ones set by the GCSE and IGCSE Examination Boards except that, in some cases, there may be more than one acceptable answer. For this reason, even if you select a correct answer at your first attempt, it is worth looking at all the alternatives (a) to see if there is a better answer and (b) to see why some of the alternatives are unacceptable. First slide

  3. Question 1 One of the characteristics of living organisms is that they all respire. Respiration is… (a) obtaining oxygen by breathing (b) obtaining energy from sunlight (c) obtaining energy by chemically breaking down food (d) breaking down large molecules to smaller molecules by digestion Question 2

  4. No ‘Breathing’ is the method by which most animals obtain oxygen from their surroundings (air or water). It is not a characteristic of all living organisms.

  5. No Only plants can obtain energy from sunlight

  6. Yes Nearly all living organisms obtain their energy by breaking down food substances either aerobically (with the use of oxygen) or anaerobically (without oxygen) C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy Aerobic respiration C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + energy Anaerobic respiration (alcoholic fermentation)

  7. No Breaking down large molecules by digestion uses energy rather than releasing it and is a property of animals, fungi and bacteria

  8. Question 2 1cm a These animals are all classsed as … (a) insects (b) spiders 1cm (c) invertebrates .05mm (d) arachnids c b Question 3

  9. No Insects have three pairs of legs. These organisms all have four pairs

  10. No c is a spider but a is a scorpion and b is a mite

  11. No They are invertebrates, but so are worms, molluscs, crustacea etc. ‘Invertebrate’ is a descriptive term not a classification

  12. Yes a is a scorpion, b is a mite and c is a spider

  13. Question 3 The classificatory term ‘Mustela erminea’, refers to… (a) a Species (b) a Class (c) an Order (d) a Genus Question 4

  14. Yes The ‘double-barrelled’ name ‘Mustela erminia’ indicates that this is a species of animal, namely, the stoat

  15. No This animal is a stoat and its Class is Mammalia (the mammals)

  16. No The animal is a stoat which belongs to the Order Carnivora (the carnivores).

  17. No The Genus is ‘Mustela’ Mustela erminea is the stoat Mustela nivalis is the weasel and Mustela putoria is the polecat

  18. Question 4 Which of the following is a defining characteristic of mammals? (a) They maintain a constant body temperature, above that of their surroundings (‘warm blooded’) (b) Their young are born alive (c) They suckle their young (d) They have four limbs Question 5

  19. No Mammals do maintain a constant body temperature above that of their surroundings but so do birds

  20. No Live birth is a mammalian characteristic but it is not exclusive to mammals. Some reptiles (e.g. chameleons), some fish (e.g.guppies) and even some insects (e.g. aphids) give birth to living young

  21. Yes Suckling their young on milk is an exclusive mammalian characteristic

  22. No Amphibia, reptiles and birds also have four limbs

  23. Question 5 A fish obtains its oxygen from …. (a) the O of H2O (b) the oxygen dissolved in water (c) the air (d) its food Question 6

  24. No Fish are unable to decompose water to release oxygen

  25. Yes It is atmospheric oxygen dissolved in water that the fish uses

  26. No There are certain fish, (called. ‘lung fish’) which live in poorly oxygenated waters, that can get some of their oxygen from atmospheric air but they are a small minority

  27. No Fish do not get oxygen from their food

  28. Question 6 Which of the following features adapt a bird for flight? (a) Hollow bones (b) Wings (c) Powerful pectoral muscles (d) Feathers Question 7

  29. Yes Hollow bones reduce the bird’s weight

  30. No Birds’ wings are essential for flight not an adaptation to flight. Without wings there is no flight* * Nevertheless, if asked to list a bird’s adaptations to flight, it might be expedient to include ‘wings’

  31. Yes The development of large, powerful pectoral muscles is an adaptation to flight. These are the muscles which move the wings during flapping flight

  32. No Only a small proportion of feathers contribute to flight. Even flightless birds have feathers.

  33. Question 7 An example of sensitivity in plants is … (a) germination of seeds (b) seed dispersal (c) wilting (d) phototropism Question 8

  34. No Admittedly, most seeds need water before they will germinate but this is essential for germination to take place rather than a response to a stimulus

  35. No Many forms of seed dispersal need specific conditions but these are not the same as a ‘stimulus’

  36. No Wilting takes place when a plant loses more water than it is absorbing. It is not a response to a stimulus

  37. Yes Phototropism is a response to a stimulus. The stimulus is light coming from one side of the plant and the response is a growth movement towards the light source

  38. Question 8 Chlamydomonas These microscopic organisms (not drawn to the same scale) are all members of the Kingdom … Euglena Amoeba (a) Monera (b) Protozoa Vorticella (c) Protophyta Paramecium (d) Protoctista Question 9

  39. No The Kingdom Monera includes bacteria and blue-green algae

  40. No The term ‘Protozoa’ refers to the one-celled organisms that feed like animals i.e, take in sold food and digest it. Amoeba, Paramecium and Vorticella are Protozoa, but Protozoa do not constitute a Kingdom

  41. No The term ‘Protophyta’ describes those single-celled organisms that feed like plants, i.e. they contain chloroplasts and make their food by photosynthesis. Chlamydomonas and Euglena are examples of Protophyta but the Protophyta do not constitute a Kingdom

  42. Yes 'The Kingdom Protoctista includes all the single-celled organisms that are not bacteria or blue-green algae

  43. Question 9 Fungi get their food by… (a) absorbing nutrients from the soil (b) secreting enzymes and reabsorbing the digested products (c) ingesting other organisms and digesting them (d) making their food during photosynthesis Question 10

  44. No Not all fungi live in the soil. Though the soil may contain mineral ions it does not contain any nutrients.

  45. Yes Fungi secrete enzymes into their surroundings (e.g. soil or decaying organic matter). The enzymes digest the organic matter and the soluble products are absorbed into the fungal hyphae

  46. No Fungi do not ingest other organisms

  47. No Fungi do not contain chlorophyll and are therefore unable to make their food by photosynthesis

  48. Question 10 Growth takes place as a result of … (a) cell division (b) intake of food (c) increase in mass (d) increase in size

  49. No Cell division usually contributes to growth but growth does not result solely from cell division. For example, the frog’s egg cell undergoes rapid and repeated cell division but does not increase in size or mass Single cell 32 cells It must also be remembered that single-celled organisms grow without cell division

  50. No Organisms must have food in order to grow but there may be periods in their lives where all the food is needed to provide energy and no growth can take place. Intake of food does not, therefore, necessarily result in growth