Living organisms. INTERACTIVE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS. The answers are provided. Explanations of why the alternatives are unsatisfactory are also offered.
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INTERACTIVE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
The answers are provided. Explanations of why the alternatives are unsatisfactory are also offered
These multiple choice questions are similar to the ones set by the GCSE and IGCSE Examination Boards except that, in some cases, there may be more than one acceptable answer.
For this reason, even if you select a correct answer at your first attempt, it is worth looking at all the alternatives
(a) to see if there is a better answer and
(b) to see why some of the alternatives are unacceptable.
One of the characteristics of living organisms is that they all respire. Respiration is…
(a) obtaining oxygen by breathing
(b) obtaining energy from sunlight
(c) obtaining energy by chemically breaking down food
(d) breaking down large molecules to smaller molecules by digestion
‘Breathing’ is the method by which most animals obtain oxygen from their surroundings (air or water). It is not a characteristic of all living organisms.
Only plants can obtain energy from sunlight
Nearly all living organisms obtain their energy by breaking down food substances either aerobically (with the use of oxygen) or anaerobically (without oxygen)
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + energy
Anaerobic respiration (alcoholic fermentation)
Breaking down large molecules by digestion uses energy rather than releasing it and is a property of animals, fungi and bacteria
These animals are all classsed as …
Insects have three pairs of legs. These organisms all have four pairs
c is a spider but a is a scorpion and b is a mite
They are invertebrates, but so are worms, molluscs, crustacea etc. ‘Invertebrate’ is a descriptive term not a classification
a is a scorpion, b is a mite and c is a spider
The classificatory term ‘Mustela erminea’, refers to…
(a) a Species
(b) a Class
(c) an Order
(d) a Genus
The ‘double-barrelled’ name ‘Mustela erminia’ indicates that this is a species of animal, namely, the stoat
This animal is a stoat and its Class is Mammalia (the mammals)
The animal is a stoat which belongs to the Order Carnivora (the carnivores).
The Genus is ‘Mustela’
Mustela erminea is the stoat
Mustela nivalis is the weasel and
Mustela putoria is the polecat
Which of the following is a defining characteristic of mammals?
(a) They maintain a constant body temperature, above that of their surroundings (‘warm blooded’)
(b) Their young are born alive
(c) They suckle their young
(d) They have four limbs
Mammals do maintain a constant body temperature above that of their surroundings but so do birds
Live birth is a mammalian characteristic but it is not exclusive to mammals. Some reptiles (e.g. chameleons), some fish (e.g.guppies) and even some insects (e.g. aphids) give birth to living young
Suckling their young on milk is an exclusive mammalian characteristic
Amphibia, reptiles and birds also have four limbs
A fish obtains its oxygen from ….
(a) the O of H2O
(b) the oxygen dissolved in water
(c) the air
(d) its food
Fish are unable to decompose water to release oxygen
It is atmospheric oxygen dissolved in water that the fish uses
There are certain fish, (called. ‘lung fish’) which live in poorly oxygenated waters, that can get some of their oxygen from atmospheric air but they are a small minority
Fish do not get oxygen from their food
Which of the following features adapt a bird for flight?
(a) Hollow bones
(c) Powerful pectoral muscles
Hollow bones reduce the bird’s weight
Birds’ wings are essential for flight not an adaptation to flight. Without wings there is no flight*
* Nevertheless, if asked to list a bird’s adaptations to flight, it might be expedient to include ‘wings’
The development of large, powerful pectoral muscles is an adaptation to flight. These are the muscles which move the wings during flapping flight
Only a small proportion of feathers contribute to flight. Even flightless birds have feathers.
An example of sensitivity in plants is …
(a) germination of seeds
(b) seed dispersal
Admittedly, most seeds need water before they will germinate but this is essential for germination to take place rather than a response to a stimulus
Many forms of seed dispersal need specific conditions but these are not the same as a ‘stimulus’
Wilting takes place when a plant loses more water than it is absorbing. It is not a response to a stimulus
Phototropism is a response to a stimulus. The stimulus is light coming from one side of the plant and the response is a growth movement towards the light source
These microscopic organisms (not drawn to the same scale) are all members of the Kingdom …
The Kingdom Monera includes bacteria and blue-green algae
The term ‘Protozoa’ refers to the one-celled organisms that feed like animals i.e, take in sold food and digest it. Amoeba, Paramecium and Vorticella are Protozoa, but Protozoa do not constitute a Kingdom
The term ‘Protophyta’ describes those single-celled organisms that feed like plants, i.e. they contain chloroplasts and make their food by photosynthesis. Chlamydomonas and Euglena are examples of Protophyta but the Protophyta do not constitute a Kingdom
'The Kingdom Protoctista includes all the single-celled organisms that are not bacteria or blue-green algae
Fungi get their food by…
(a) absorbing nutrients from the soil
(b) secreting enzymes and reabsorbing the digested products
(c) ingesting other organisms and digesting them
(d) making their food during photosynthesis
Not all fungi live in the soil. Though the soil may contain mineral ions it does not contain any nutrients.
Fungi secrete enzymes into their surroundings (e.g. soil or decaying organic matter). The enzymes digest the organic matter and the soluble products are absorbed into the fungal hyphae
Fungi do not ingest other organisms
Fungi do not contain chlorophyll and are therefore unable to make their food by photosynthesis
Growth takes place as a result of …
(a) cell division
(b) intake of food
(c) increase in mass
(d) increase in size
Cell division usually contributes to growth but growth does not result solely from cell division.
For example, the frog’s egg cell undergoes rapid and repeated cell division but does not increase in size or mass
It must also be remembered that single-celled organisms grow without cell division
Organisms must have food in order to grow but there may be periods in their lives where all the food is needed to provide energy and no growth can take place. Intake of food does not, therefore, necessarily result in growth
An increase in mass results in growth. It is usually accompanied by an increase in size
Increase in size usually accompanies growth but unless there is a corresponding increase in mass it cannot be called growth. For example a butterfly emerging from a pupa increases its size but there is no increase in mass
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