Basidiomycetes. Characteristics: Septate mycelium Basidia and basidiospores Clamp connections. Not all Basidiomycetes produce these, but when a fungus does it will always be a basidiomycete. Basidiomycetes. Characteristics: Two main groups, based on morphology of basidia.
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Order Uredinales – the rusts
Order Ustilaginales – the smuts
Order Aphyllophorales (aka Polyporales) – the bracket fungi
Order Agaricales – the mushrooms
5. Three types of hyphae
These are obligate parasites. Generally these require two host to complete their lifecycle.
Primary hosts – the host on which basidia and basidiospores are produced.
Alternate host – the other host in the life cycle on which spermagonia and aecia are produced
Alternative host – the host that a pathogen can infect in place of the primary or alternate hosts.
Heteroecious – organisms with a primary and alternate host.
Autoecious – organisms that have only a single (primary) host.
Macrocyclic rust – long cycle rust. Produce all 5 spore types.
Demicyclic rust – medium cycle rust. Omits uredia.
Microcyclic rust – short cycle rusts. Produces basidiospores, teliospores and spermatia.
Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis tritici
Cedar apple rust, caused by Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianum
lacks the uredia stage = no repeating stage
Unique characteristics of smuts (vs. rusts)
Example: corn smut, caused by Ustilago maydis