Table of Contents. Forces in Earth’s Crust Earthquakes and Seismic Waves Monitoring Earthquakes Earthquake Safety. Plate Tectonic Boundaries. Forces in Earth’s Crust. How does stress in the crust change Earth’s surface? Where are faults usually found, & why do they form?
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How does stress in the crust change Earth’s surface?
Where are faults usually found, & why do they form?
What land features result from the forces of plate movement?
- Forces in Earth’s CrustBuilding Vocabulary
Stress is a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.
The block of rock that lies above a normal fault is called the hanging wall.
The stress force called tension pulls on the crust, stretching rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle.
The rock that lies below is called the footwall.
In a strike-slip fault, the rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways, with little up or down motion.
The stress force called compression squeezes rock until it folds or breaks.
A fold in rock that bends upward into an arch is an anticline.
Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions is called shearing.
A fold in rock that bends downward to form a valley is a syncline.
Tension in Earth’s crust pulls rock apart, causing normal faults.
A plateau is a large area of flat land elevated high above sea level.
A reverse fault has the same structure as a normal fault, but the blocks move in the opposite direction.
What variable is shown on the x-axis of the graph? The y-axis?
- Earthquakes and Seismic WavesSeismic Wave Speeds
- Earthquakes and Seismic WavesIdentifying Main Ideas
Seismic waves carry the energy of an earthquake.
P waves compress and expand the ground.
S waves vibrate from side to side as well as up and down.
Surface waves produce the most severe ground movements.
How a Seismograph Works
Incoming seismic waves
Vibrate the rotating drum
The suspended pen remains motionless and records the drum’s vibration.
Earthquake damage occurs as a result of shaking, liquefaction, aftershocks, and tsunamis.
How can you stay safe during an earthquake?
The best way to stay safe during an earthquake is to drop, cover, and hold.
What makes buildings safe from earthquakes?
Buildings can be made safer by being built stronger and with greater flexibility.
- Earthquake SafetyAsking Questions
Where is the quake risk highest?
Earthquake risk is the highest along faults and where past earthquakes have occurred.