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新古典 的 文藝 The Neoclassic Art of Literature. 董 崇 選 中山醫大應用外語系教授 「懂更懂學習英文網站」負責人 網址: The Neoclassic Age: 新古典時代. 1. 又稱 the Age of Reason , 理性的時代 或 the Enlightenment ( 啟蒙 ) 。 2. 時間 : the late 17th C. & the 18th C. 或 between roughly 1660 and 1770

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the neoclassic art of literature

新古典 的 文藝The Neoclassic Art of Literature

董 崇 選




the neoclassic age
The Neoclassic Age:新古典時代

1. 又稱 the Age of Reason, 理性的時代

或 the Enlightenment(啟蒙)。

2. 時間: the late 17th C. & the 18th C.

或between roughly 1660 and 1770

或1660 (Restoration) ~ 1798 (Lyrical Ballads)

3. 地點在歐洲,特別 France and England

4. 範圍 in literature, painting, sculpture, music, architecture, etc.

ii the meaning of neoclassicism
II. The Meaning of Neoclassicism:新古典的含義
    • To revive the virtues of the Greek and Roman classics. 恢復古典希臘羅馬之優點
  • To follow especially Virgil and Horace.
    • To react against the extravagant fires of the Renaissance. 反抗過熱的文藝復興情懷
  • To restrain especially individualism and human passions.
iii the background of neoclassicism
III. The Background of Neoclassicism: 新古典的背景

1. Monarchs (君王) faced insecurity (不安全): wars within and between nations

  • The Civil War & the Commonwealth (1642-1660) 英國內戰、共和
  • The Glorious Revolution (1688) 光榮革命
  • Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes (1685) 法王 廢除 「南特詔書」
  • The French Revolution (1789)
iii the background of neoclassicism1
III. The Background of Neoclassicism:

2. Thinkers of enlightenment: 啟蒙思想家

  • Descartes:Discourse on Method 《方法論》

Cogito, ergo sum (I think, therefore I am) 我思故我在

  • Locke:Essay Concerning Human Understanding

“Our business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our conduct.” Tabula rasa (blank sheet) 人生來如白紙

  • Berkeley:Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge

Esse est percipi (To be is to be perceived) 存在就是被覺知

  • 英 Newton, 荷 Spinoza (Ethics 、泛神論), 德 Leibnitz(La Monadologie 、樂觀論), 法 Pascal (Pensees 《思想集》)

“Man is but a reed, the weakest thing in nature, but he is a thinking reed” 會思考的蘆葦

iii the background of neoclassicism2
III. The Background of Neoclassicism:

3.Deism (理神論) : God is but like a watchmaker. 上帝如錶匠

4.Optimism (樂觀論) : This is the best of all possible worlds. 此世界最佳

5. The rise of the middle class and

the novel 中產階級興起、小說興起

6. The “Ancients and Moderns” dispute 「古今之爭」

iv the neoclassical genres
IV. The Neoclassical Genres:新古典的文類
  • The epigram (警句), the essay (散文), the epistle (letter) 信札
  • The epic (史詩), comedy (喜劇), tragedy (悲劇), early novel (早期小說)
  • The mock-epic (效嘲史詩), satire (諷刺文), philosophical tale (哲學故事), didactic poetry (教化詩)
  • Fables (寓言), maxims (格言), fairy tales (神仙故事), etc.
v the attributes of neoclassicism
V. The Attributes(特徵) of Neoclassicism:

1. Extolling ration, reason, logic, order, law, rules, good sense, good taste, etc.褒揚理牲

2. Preferring restraint, moderation, decorum, clarity, simplicity, etc. 偏愛節制

3. Seeking correctness, balance, proportion, symmetry, unity, harmony, grace, etc. 尋求正確、均衡、分寸、和諧、優雅等

4. Revering the past masters and distrusting innovation. 尊重前輩大師、不信革新

v the attributes of neoclassicism1
V. The Attributes (特徵) of Neoclassicism:

5. Emphasizing the general and typical rather than the individual and particular. 重普遍

6. Stressing morality and urbanity and praising wit. 重道德、都市氣質、機智

7. Believing in art rather than nature. 講技藝

8. Recognizing man’s imperfection and limitation. 認為人有缺陷、有限度

9. Viewing men as social beings and trusting authority and conventions. 社會人、重權威傳統

vi representative authors and works
VI. Representative Authors and Works
  • France

1.Corneille 柯內爾: Medèe. Cid, la Menteur

2.Racine 拉信:Phaedra,Andromaque

Theseus, Phaedra, Hippolytus 感情 vs. 理智

By Euripides in Greek, Seneca in Latin, Racine in French

3.Molière 莫里哀:Tartufe, The Misanthrope《厭世者》,The Bourgeois Gentleman《中產階級紳士》 沒 Sense

Tartuffe, Orgon, 其母、妻、妻舅,Mariane & Valere, Dorine 等。

又名 The Imposter: 諷刺 religious hypocrisy Fontaine 拉豐田: Fables

(包括 “The Jay in the Feathers of the Peacock,”

“The Grasshopper and the Ant,” “The Fox and the Crow,” “The Frog Who Would Be an Ox,” etc.)

vi representative authors and works1
VI. Representative Authors and Works:

5. Perrault 培洛 : Fairy Tales

(包括 Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Beauty and the Beast 等)

6. la Rochefoucauld 拉羅希福寇:Maxims

“To refuse praise means that you want to be praised twice.”

“Women in love forgive major indiscretions more easily than they do small infidelities.”

7. Voltaire 伏爾泰:Candide (《戇弟德》)

A novella with 30 episodic chapters mainly to satirize Optimism.

“All is for the best in the best of all possible worlds.”

Pangloss, Candide, Cunegonde, Paquette, etc.

From Westphalia through Portugal, Spain, to Argentina, Eldorado, etc., and then back to France, England, Venice, Constantinople.

“We must cultivate our garden.”

vi representative authors and works2
VI. Representative Authors and Works:


1. The Metaphysical Poets: 玄派詩人

John Donne(“A Valediction”),〈告別〉金箔、圓規

Marvell(“To His Coy Mistress”)〈致矜持之女士〉

2. Milton (密爾頓):ParadiseLost 《失樂園》

An epic on the fall of man through disobedience to God

3. Dryden:All for Love,

An Essay of Dramatic Poesy

4. Sheridan and Congreve: Comedy of Manners

The School for Scandal : Lady Sneerwell, Snake, Sir Teazle, Maria, etc. Deception & fickleness of reputation

The Way of the World: Mirabell and Miramant, Lady Wishfort, etc.

vi representative authors and works3
VI. Representative Authors and Works:

5. Pepys and Evelyn: Diary

6. Pope 波普: Essay on Criticism, Essay on Man,The Rape of the Lock (秀髮劫), The Dunciad.

7. Swift 史衛夫特: Gulliver’s Travels (格烈佛遊記):Houyhnhnms (理性馬) and Yahoos (雅猢)

8. Addison and Steele: 報章 “paper” or “pamphlet”

the Tatler and the Spectator (觀察者): A daily publication of 1711-12, each “paper” about 2,500 words long,“to enliven morality with wit, and to temper wit with morality.”

9. Johnson: the Dictionary, Rasselas,

The Vanity of Human Wishes

10. Defoe (Robinson Crusoe 魯賓遜漂流記),

Fielding (Tom Jones), etc.

vii conclusion
VII. Conclusion:

1. Neoclassic art is the art of the mind, not of the heart. 思想的藝術

2. Neoclassic art aims to delight and instruct at the same time. 悅人及誨人

3. Satire is the typical genre and wit is the greatest virtue. 諷刺文及才智

4. The art is best shown in the baroque or rococo style and in the heroic couplet.


vii conclusion1
VII. Conclusion:

Heroic Couplet (英雄雙行体):

“On life’s vast ocean diversely we sail,

Reason the card, but Passion the gale.”

– Essay on Criticism

“Where wigs with wigs, with sword-knots

sword- knots strive,

Beaux banish beaux, and coaches

coaches drive.”

“Smooth flow the waves, the zephyrs gently play;

Belinda smiled, and all the world was gay.”

– The Rape of the Lock