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Dynamic Earth. Class 9 7 February 2006. Any Questions?. Note: Exam #1 Date shown on hardcopy syllabus at February 14 th , but said February 15 th . The correct date is February 14 th (On-line version is correct). Elastic Rebound Theory. Elastic Rebound Theory.

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dynamic earth

Dynamic Earth

Class 9

7 February 2006


Note:Exam #1Date shown on hardcopy syllabus atFebruary 14th, but said February 15th.The correct date is February 14th (On-line version is correct)

Why do some volcanoes (e.g, Augustine Volcano) erupt violently whereas other volcanoes (e.g. Kilauea Volcano) erupt relatively quietly?

Monday, February 06, 2006 (Associated Press)

S C I E N C E: Augustine Volcano continues to erupt

Augustine Volcano continued to erupt today, with the volcano producing a continuous crescent-shaped plume of steam, and ash and gas speeding down the flanks of the island mountain and into the sea. The Alaska Volcano Observatory made hourly updates on its Web site with each one beginning the same way — “Eruption is in progress.”The volcano on an uninhabited island has been erupting since Saturday, with explosions thrusting particles almost five miles into the skies around south-central Alaska. With winds shifting the ash away from major air routes, airlines cautiously resumed dozens of flights that had been canceled as a precaution. Ash particles can damage engines. Alaska Airlines on Tuesday resumed all flights to and from Kodiak Island and Anchorage, the state’s largest air hub, said spokeswoman Amanda Tobin. The airline had canceled all of its 36 Anchorage flights Monday night as a precaution. Flights to and from Kodiak had been canceled Sunday and Monday.









classification of igneous rocks
Classification of Igneous Rocks
  • Determined by composition (both chemical and mineralogical):
    • magnesium (Mg) + iron (Fe) = mafic
    • feldspar + quartz (Si) = felsic
bowen s reaction series
Bowen’s reaction series
  • Series of chemical reactions that take place in silicate magmas as they cool
  • First investigated in the 1920s and 1930s by N. L. Bowen
  • Important experiments that help us understand the evolution of magmas
fractional crystallization
Fractional crystallization
  • The modification of magma by crystallization and removal of mineral phases
  • Because only certain elements will go into a given mineral, this will tend to change the composition of the remaining liquid
where do magmas come from
Where do magmas come from?
  • Basalts: Broadly speaking, we know that mantle rocks (45% SiO2) partially melt (10 to 15%) to produce basalts (50% SiO2)
where do magmas come from1
Where do magmas come from?
  • With the addition of some water, basalts will partially melt to produce Andesite (60% SiO2)

Series of very long-wavelength waves on the ocean

= “tidal wave”

Has nothing to do with tides


tsunami waves
Tsunami waves
  • Very small out in the open ocean
  • Amplitude of only ~ 1 meter
  • Very long wavelengths (up to 100 km)
  • Travel very fast (as much as 500 mph)
tsunami waves1
Tsunami waves
  • When waves reach shallow water, they "feel" the shallow bottom, just like ordinary waves, and they slow down (to 20-30 mph)
  • Because of the massive energy, this slowdown causes them to build up very high (up to 50-100 m)
hilo may 23 1960
Hilo: May 23, 1960
  • Maximum inundation in Hilo (along the Wailoa River) exceeded half a mile.
  • Maximum wave height at Hilo was 11 m (36 ft)
  • 61 people died.
japan may 24 1960 22 hours after the earthquake 7 hours after the hilo tragedy
Japan: May 24, 1960, 22 hours after the earthquake (7 hours after the Hilo tragedy)
  • The tsunami killed 200 people in Japan

1952 Tsunami

wave passing

under bridge

at Haleiwa

Kaiaka Bay


Beach in Laie, O`ahu before tsunami

generated by 1957 quake in Aleutians

  • Maximum height above sea level reached by a tsunami when it reaches shore
  • Horizontal distance from the normal water's edge reached by a tsunami
tsunami can be generated by any process that displaces a large amount of water
Tsunami can be generated by any process that displaces a large amount of water:
  • Sub-sea earthquakes
  • Giant landslides
  • Volcanic eruptions
  • Meteorite impacts
t hur sday
  • Video: Continental Drift: Legacy of Fire