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E N E R G Y S U P P L Y MICRO AND DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND TRIGENERATION II LONG HISTORY OF COGENERATION IN THE WORLD PAYS OFF. Prof. dr. Marija Todorovic DERES - DIVISION FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Serbia
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MICRO AND DISTRIBUTED GENERATION
AND TRIGENERATION II
LONG HISTORY OF COGENERATION IN THE WORLD PAYS OFF
Prof. dr. Marija Todorovic
DERES - DIVISION FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Serbia
2006 6th November
micro and distributed generation and
technologies developmentAIM OF THIS LECTURE
Eastern and Western Europe
Pay-off and Near Future Prospects
Monetary and Ecologically
Security of energy supply and general social
Resources conservation by the energy
efficiency improvement and RESutilisation
People health and living
Contributes to approach sustainability
Ethics of Sustainability
Local heating/cooling supply policy
Benefits for the consumers
Use of local fuels
Productivity International energy and environmental policy
High technology – Development of new products
COGENERATION ASPECTS OF
The year 1903 is the birth of DH and CHP year in Russia, when based on prof. Dimitriev and engineer Ginter design constructed Heating System for the Prince Oldenbourg’s children hospital had been connected to the two steam turbines at the local Electricity Station.
The other - after revolution place “birth” of CHP /District Heating is Saint Peterbourg 1924 when the first vapour pipeline was opened of the state electrical power plant towards Building 95 near river Fontanka.
1903-1917 Study and development of different schemes of DH heating systems
1924-1931 Construction of largerDH systems for heating buildings and industrial facilities/plants
1931-1950 Construction of CHP plants in big industrial centers
1950-1975 Very intensive development of construction industry and spreading of DH systems in cities and industrial centers
1975-1990 Decreasing construction of CHP systems
BY THE CHP SYSTEMS IN FSU
1 - TOTAL; 2 - ELECTRICAL MAIN UTILITIES
Study on the CHP based on Nuclear energy had been stopped after Chernobyl accident.
Recently has been initiated continuation on the study of the “inherently safe” nuclear CHP systems for the DH of power 300 MW.
The world energy crisis 1973 stopped many western countries in their “chaotic” development of energetique, which lead them to numerous homes with autonomous boilers fueledwith oil to supply heat or heated using electrical energy.
Based on mainly the Eastern European experience they began conversion to wider utilization of DH and central CHP systems – using locally available energy resources proceeding with adequate state regulative and laws.
City PJ GWh Heat/Year
St.Petersburg 237 66,000
Moscow 150 42,000
Prague 54 15,000
Warsaw 38.2 10,600
Bucharest 36.7 10,197
Seoul 36 10,000
Berlin 33 9,247
Copenhagen 30 8,000
New York City, Stockholm, Helsinki, Hamburg, Paris, Göteborg, Reykjavík, Krakow, Katowice, Gdansk, Tampere, Finland, Indianapolis, Gdynia, Philadelphia, Detroit
CHP - 4 engines of 1,4 MW = 5,6 MW Electrical power
and total 6,8 MW Thermal power
3 Gas boilers of 9 MW - total 27 MW
3 Absorption cooling units of 0,67 MW = 2,0 MW
Mostransgaz Business Center Moscow
MOSTRANSGAZ BCenter HEATING ENERGY USE
1950 and 1960 DH supply extended to most of the country's large cities.
Oil crises in 1973-74 formulation of the energy policy to reduce the approx. 100% dependency on oil.
Energy Research Programme (ERP) in 1976 support energy R&D in EnEff. and decrease the environmental impact of energy production.
The law on heat supply took effect in 1979 - 50% of about 700,000 existing DH systems targeted use CHP heat, biomass and DE systems, developing North Sea gas distribution system and preaparing for the CHP.
In 1981, the Development Programme for Renewable Energy (DPRE) supplemented RES.
The 1986 Agreement on CHP became a major energy policy priority based on the technology of matured small CHP installations driven by natural gas, the political focus on the economic consequences of high energy prices, there was a need for new power capacity.
The amendment to the law on heat supply in 1990, a new planning system –“project system” was developed - promoting expansion of decentralized CHP through:
- conversion of existing installations to CHP
- conversion from coal and oil to natural gas
- increased use of environmentally friendly RES.
After more than 20 yearsof such support, many environmentally friendly technologies and fuel installations became so technologically and commercially mature that they no longer required subsidizing and in 2002 the Finance Act discontinued the DPRE's subsidy system.
Though over 30% of the electricity generated is CHP-based, it is not the consequence of specific political action, exept governmental support for CHP within well-funded research programme.
The reason is more due to an absence of barriers; the fact that CHP is recognised as being the most economic means of generating electricity; that there is a greater acceptance of longer payback periods and; finally, that heating demand is high. One has to keep in mind that almost all CHP is in industry or District Heating.
Plentiful availability of wood biomass and extensive use of peat as energy sources.
Increased efficiency of energy conversion and use
More decentralised form of electricity generation
Improved local and general security of supply
More employment - EU formulated in 1997 a strategy to promote CHP with a target of doubling the use of co-generation to 18% of EU electricity production by 2010, avoiding CO2 emissions of more than 65 Mt CO2 per year.
Kyoto single biggest challenge
Cogeneration is one of the most cost effective solutions in DE generation and one of the major solutions to the undeveloped countries electrification
Short term, medium and long term vision
and interests affecting the market
Current EU CHP SituationPercentage of total electricity generation in 1999
Sources: Eurostat, COGEN Europe, Cogena
Source: Münchener Rückversicherungsgesellschaft
Also the German, Finnish, Danish,
Irish and Dutch parliaments
Deregulation, Re-regulation, Liberalisation and Privatisation
Deregulation leads to chaos!
All markets need regulation so re-regulation is necessary, from state owned to new structures
Privatisation is the ultimate result of liberalisation as state owned companies will struggle in a truly open market
Liberalisation is just a process and needs to be framed correctly
Allows new entrants, greater transparency, less discrimination on top-up and emergency supplies
Must be correctly regulated and framed
Directive on CHP = progress but compromises...
Globally positive, in particular for DH and CHP
Needed coordinated policies at the EU and Member State level. Action Plan is essential and urgent at the EU level and National Plans and Strategies need to be developed.
Source: Primes, (Autumn 1999): CHP electricity production, share of total generation
Draft proposal consists of:
Explanatory Memorandum (30 pages)
Main body of the Directive (18 article and four Annexes)GENERAL INFORMATION
The purpose of this Directive is to increase energy efficiency and improve security of supply by creating a framework for promotion and development of high efficiency cogeneration of heat and power based on useful heat demand and primary energy savings in the internal energy market, taking into account the specific national circumstances especially concerning climatic and economic conditions.
Electricity grid system and tariff issues
Guarantee of origin of electricity from high efficiency cogeneration
Cogeneration technologies covered by the DirectiveDefinition of electricity from cogeneration
Criteria for analysis of national potentialsfor high-efficiency cogeneration
The Directive published in the OJ of EU in 11/2/04
The MS have two years to implement the Directive into their legal framework
A ‘Comitology’, under the supervision of Commission,
is working to propose ‘reference values for separate
heat and power production’.
End of the work: February 2006
The Greek Ministry for Development set up a
committee to implement the Directive in the Greek
energy legal system. End of the Committee: March
CHP is the perfect tool for clean decentralised energy services
Single largest contributor to cutting CO2
Costs are neutral as well
Uncertainties in EU remain but, if set in the right framework, liberalisation will have a positive impact
Market potential is huge>30% of electricity supply is ecomonic today
specify the lower calorific value of the fuel source from which the electricity was produced, specify the use of the heat generated together with the electricity and finally specify the dates and places of production.
specify the quantity of electricity from high efficiency cogeneration that the guarantee represents.
specify the primary energy savings calculated based on harmonised reference values established by the Commission.
A. Combined cycle gas turbine with heat recovery
B. Steam backpressure turbine
C. Steam condensing extraction turbine
D. Gas turbine with heat recovery
E. Internal combustion engine
F. Micro turbines
G. Stirling engines
H. Fuel cells
I. Steam engines
J. Organic Ranking cycles
Any other type of technology or combination
thereof falling under the def. in Article 3 a.
ANNEX IV: CRTERIA FOR ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL POTENTIALSFOR HIGH-EFFICIENCY COGENERATION
Distributed energy systems
for intelligent buildings
RES, REM, EnEfficiency and Sustainable Development
All level regular and vacational Education,Engineering Experience (Designing, Construction, LCCommisioning and Operation)
Most current knowledge and technologies and Mental awarness/Ethics of Sustainability
Cost effectiveness/harmonization of
- Dynamics of final energy user’s loads
- Dynamics of Co/Trigeneration efficiency
- Dynamics of technically available RES fluxes
Small specific energy fluxes and Distributed character of RES versus Distributed Co/Trigeneration
Internalisation of a Environmental and Sustainability Costs and benefit values.
Taking the environmental benefits into consideration and linking the environmental goals to those of implementing a competitive and efficient market would guide decision makingtowards sustainability.
Fundamental difference between decisions and approaches grounded in discretionary pursuit of self-interest, and those based on commitment to sustainability intrinsic standards.
Sustainability ethically sanctioned approaches, at each level and in each domain, can help to properly govern the complex nature content of the challenges sustainability is faced with.