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BIOMEDICAL DEVICES A MULTI/INTER-DISCIPLINARY SUBJECT. Effective treatments of patient health problems are often limited by devices, technologies and medications currently available. Breakthroughs are needed!. Biology , chemistry and physics inform both medicine and engineering .

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biomedical devices a multi inter disciplinary subject
BIOMEDICAL DEVICESA MULTI/INTER-DISCIPLINARY SUBJECT

Effective treatments of patient health problems are often limited by devices, technologies and medications currently available.

Breakthroughs are needed!

Biology, chemistry and physics inform both medicine and engineering.

Engineering applies controlled experimentation and physical-mathematical modeling to conceptualize, design, fabricate andlab-test prototype devices.

Collaborations with industry lead to the development, fabrication and clinical testing of ‘final’ human-compatible biomedical devices.

The work requires multi/interdisciplinary teams of specialists working collaboratively to generate (i) devices that cure disease and save lives and, possibly, (ii) valuable intellectual property.

purpose of this presentation
PURPOSE OF THIS PRESENTATION
  • Provide some examples of ongoing biomedical device work in engineering
  • Motivate medical and engineering folks to seek each other out to:
    • Identify and analyze the limitations and grand challenges facing medicine and/or engineering in order to make needed breakthroughstogether
    • Identify and resolve any barriers or impediments to productive collaborations
    • Identify and seek funding in support of research collaborations
    • Collectively approach the SEAS and SoM administration for strong support of these efforts
uva artificial heart project

Houston Wood, Paul Allaire, Alex Untaroiu

hwood@virginia.edu

University of Virginia

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

UVa Artificial Heart Project

project objective

UVa Artificial Heart Project

Project Objective

Houston Wood, Paul Allaire, Alex Untaroiu

  • Design a compact, axial flow Ventricular Assist Device with magnetically levitated impeller

Aorta

  • physiological pressures and flow rates
  • suitable in size for implantation
  • streamlined, unobstructed flow path
  • minimal propensity for red blood cell damage (low hemolysis)
  • reduced likelihood of blood stagnation - coagulation (thrombosis)

LV

RV

Left Ventricular Assist Device

slide5

George T. Gillies, Joseph A. C. Humphrey

• Biophysical Modeling of Flows within the Brain

School of Engineering and Applied Science

University of Virginia

gtg@virginia.edu, jach@virginia.edu

blood flow by pass catheter humphrey and gillies in collaboration with drs l gimple and m ragosta
Blood Flow By-Pass CatheterHumphrey and Gillies in collaboration with Drs. L. Gimple and M. Ragosta

Applications:

(i) thrombi (PVD)

(ii) restenosis (iii) plaque passivation (iv) improved imaging

Schematic shows two renderings of a double-lumen bypass device designed to divert the flow of blood (red) approaching a thrombus or other lesion (purple) while dispensing a stream with medication (blue) to a thrombus (or other lesion) at controlled flow rates independently of the flow of blood.

blood flow by pass catheter humphrey and gillies in collaboration with drs l gimple and m ragosta1
Blood Flow By-Pass CatheterHumphrey and Gillies in collaboration with Drs. L. Gimple and M. Ragosta

Ultimate objective is the ‘on-the-spot’ fabrication of catheters using a research methodology that combines:

(i) geometrically- and dynamically-scaled experiments

(ii) computational fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer

(iii) genetic algorithms for randomly-guided optimization

(iv) micro-fabrication techniques

to evolve optimal, patient-specific devices

slide9

Novel Access Device for Femoral Artery Catheterization

Michael Ragosta, M.D. – Concept and Clinical Need

Scott Lim, M.D. – Design Guidance

Srijoy Mahapatra, M.D. – Design Oversight

George T. Gillies, Ph.D. – Prototype Development

SOM-Cardiology/SEAS-MAE

Problem: Percutaneous puncture of femoral artery is inexact and may result in access of a side branch potentially leading to a complication.

Potential solution: Need a method to allow an injection of contrast while maintaining a method to introduce a guide wire and the system should be small enough so that repositioning the needle will be easy and not cause bleeding

Concept to prototype time: 6 weeks!

Device fabricated using only

FDA-approved components.

slide10
Counter-Current Fluid-Fluid Flows Mixer C2F3MHumphrey (in collaboration with Landers’ lab, Chemistry)

On demand mixing: Two counter-flowing streams meet in the open space between a pair of separation plates where they split in the presence of pressure and shear forces that induce good mixing. This mix-and-split feature of the single unit has been built into a multi-unit prototype mixer. Applications range from small (sub-mm) to large (dm) devices.

counter current fluid fluid flows mixer c 2 f 3 m humphrey in collaboration with landers chemistry
Counter-Current Fluid-Fluid Flows Mixer C2F3MHumphrey (in collaboration with Landers, Chemistry)

Entering clear stream (bottom channel)

Exiting mixed streams

Entering dyed stream (top channel)

slide12

Gregory J. Gerling, PhD

Assistant Professor

Department of Systems & Information Engineering

University of Virginia

gregory-gerling@virginia.edu

General Research Interests:

  • Computational neuroscience for understanding touch
  • Human-computer interaction for medical simulation and training (design, prototyping, evaluation)
  • Human performance modeling
  • Decision support systems and automated control
  • Biomechanics, sensory rehabilitation and restoration
slide13
Virginia Prostate Exam Simulatorwith Dr. Marcus Martin, Emergency Medicine & Reba Moyer Childress, Nursing

Our central premise is that simulators, to be useful, must monitor and provide feedback on trainees’ technique, facilitate the training experience via augmented feedback, and utilize a range of graded practice scenarios that accurately reflect disease progression.

Simulators with Corresponding Disease State Representations

simulation framework for training chest tube insertion using virtual reality and force feedback
Simulation Framework for Training Chest Tube Insertion Using Virtual Reality and Force Feedback

with Dr. Marcus Martin, Emergency Medicine & Reba Moyer Childress, Nursing

  • Simulation of the chest tube insertion procedure
    • Utilizes force feedback
    • Teaches cognitive tasks and info management
    • 18 procedural steps broken into 6 major tasks
    • Status / Navigation Aids

Post perform-ance report

slide15
Secure Mobile Computing Using BiotelemetricsBen Calhoun (ECE), Travis Blalock (ECE), and Alfred Weaver (CS)
  • Goal: develop a low-power integrated circuit with a biometric sensor, microcontroller, and radio
  • Chip attaches to body like a Band-Aid
  • Collects biometric data, performs some local processing, and transmits data over a wireless channel to a mobile device, e.g., PDA or laptop
  • Initially we are using a heart rate sensor, Bluetooth, and an HP iPAQ PDA
  • Ultimately the chip will be powered using energy-scavenging from the body, and will support additional sensors
  • We will be able to export the biometric signal over the Internet—securely—to anywhere in the world
  • Prototype using discrete logic is currently operational
  • First IC expected spring 2008