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  1. The Multi-cultural Classroom:Learning, Student and Faculty Issues Dr Ken Morse International Management Waikato Management School Hamilton, NEW ZEALAND kmorse@mngt.waikato.ac.nz

  2. Introduction... • Background • Clash of (online) cultures • Technology Issues • Implications: • For faculty • For institutions

  3. Influx of students Malaysia Thailand China India Offshore developments New campuses Visiting lecturers Twining agreements Background: The Australasian experience

  4. Background: The Australasian experience • Significance: • 4% GDP (4th largest industry) • 2.7% GDP (10th largest industry)

  5. 2000 - 24 students 8 New Zealand 2 North America 1 Australia 1 United Kingdom 9 People’ Republic China 1 Thailand 1 Indonesia 1 Philippines 2003 - 58 students 7 New Zealand 1 USA 30 People’s Republic China 13 India 3 Taiwan 1 Hong Kong 2 Indonesia 1 Thailand Background: The Australasian experienceDemographic Changes

  6. Judeo/Christian Logic Equality Individualism Confucian Face Elders Support Clash of (online) cultures

  7. Clash of (online) cultures • Learning style differences: • Active vs passive • Seeker vs parrot

  8. Clash of (online) cultures • Impact: Change of behavior? • Majority? • Minority? • “Middle of the road”?

  9. Technology (hardware/software) Compatibility Interconnectivity/Reliability O/S Language Technology Issues:

  10. Technology Skills Range of skills Data entry Technology Issues:

  11. Communication Language as code Context? Experience Learning style Behavior Technology Issues:

  12. Experience: Learning style Language (2nd?) Timidity Off-line editing Colloquial/jargon “live chat” Technology Issues: Observed responses

  13. Behaviour: subordination Lack of confidence Withdrawal Disengagement/backlash “lurker” behaviour “assigned” Technology Issues: Observed responses

  14. For Learning? Flexibility Demographics Economies of scale Implications: for faculty

  15. For Teaching? Continuous upskilling? Workload? Hardware/software? Implications: for faculty

  16. Support: initial Cultural orientation Lifestyle as well as academic Support: continuing Integration? Language? Implications: for institutions

  17. Financial: Revenue, but …. Quality of education issues? Implications: for institutions

  18. Advantages aSpatial aTemporal Participation Quantity Quality Accessibility Recall/Reference Disadvantages Frustration Accessibility Reliability Group coordination Timing/delay Skills deficits Cultural bias Where can Technology help?

  19. Conclusions... • Online “cross-cultural” integration • Role/impact of Technology • Issues for Faculty and Institutions