slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Families, Kinship, and Descent PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Families, Kinship, and Descent

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 33

Families, Kinship, and Descent - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Download Presentation
Families, Kinship, and Descent
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. 18 Families, Kinship, and Descent Anthropology:The Exploration of Human Diversity 11th Edition Conrad Phillip Kottak

  2. Families, Kinship, and Descent • Families • Descent • Kinship Calculation • Kinship Terminology

  3. Families • Nuclear family—consists of a married couple and their children, normally living together in same household • Extended family—consists of three or more generations • Understanding kinship system is essential part of anthropology

  4. Families • Nuclear and Extended Families • Family of orientation—family in which one is born and grows up • Family of procreation—formed when one marries and has children • Descent groups—lineages and clans Nuclear family widespread, but not universal

  5. Families • In societies where the nuclear family is important, it acts as primary arena for sexual, reproductive, economic, and enculturative functions It is not the only structure used by societies for these functions

  6. Families • Among the Muslims of western Bosnia, nuclear families embedded within large extended families called zadrugas headed by male household head and his wife • Nayars are matrilineal society in which extended families live in compounds called tarawads headed by a senior woman • In many societies, the extended families are the primary unit of social organization

  7. Families • Location of the Nayars in India’s Kerala Province • Insert Figure 18.1

  8. Families • Most prevalent residence pattern in U.S. is family of procreation living neolocally. • Industrialism and Family Organization In U.S., as in other large, industrialized societies, patterns of residence and family types may change from class to class

  9. Families • In 2000, 24 percent of American households were inhabited by nuclear families • Increasing representation of women in the work force is associated with a rise in marriage age • Between 1970 and 2000 the number of divorced Americans jumped by factor of 4.4 • Changes in North American Kinship The number of single-parent families outstripped population growth

  10. Families • Americans (especially middle class) identify a smaller range of kindred than members of nonindustrial societies • Changes in North American Kinship • Only 52 percent of American women and 56 percent of American men were currently married in 2000 One of the most striking contrasts exists between the U.S. and Brazil

  11. Families • Changes in Family and Household Organization in the United States: 1970 versus 2000 • Insert Table 18.1

  12. Families • The two basic units of social organization among foragers are the nuclear family and the band • Typically, band exists only seasonally, breaking up into nuclear families when subsistence means require • The Family among Foragers

  13. Descent • Permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry • Matrilineal descent—individuals automatically join mother’s descent group when they are born • Patrilineal descent—individuals automatically join father’s descent group when they are born • Descent Groups

  14. Descent • Clan—descent group who claims common descent from an apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it (stipulated descent) • When clan’s apical ancestor is nonhuman, called totem • Descent Groups • Lineage—descent group who can demonstrate their common descent from apical ancestor

  15. Descent • A Matrilineage Five Generations Deep • Insert Figure 18.4

  16. Descent • A Patrilineage Five Generations Deep • Insert Figure 18.5

  17. Descent • In tribal societies, descent group, not nuclear family, is fundamental unit • In many societies, descent groups are corporate, sharing resources and property • Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules

  18. Descent • Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules • Unilocal Residence • Patrilocality—married couple lives with husband’s family; associated with patrilineal descent and more common than matrilocality • Matrilocality—married couple lives with wife’s family; associated with matrilineal descent and less common than patrilocality

  19. Descent • People can choose the descent group they want to belong to • Membership is fluid • With unilineal descent, membership ascribed • For ambilineal descent, membership achieved • Ambilineal Descent

  20. Descent • Many societies have both families and descent groups • Obligations to one may conflict with obligations to the other • Family versus Descent Compared to patrilineal systems, matrilineal societies tend to have higher divorce rates and greater female promiscuity

  21. Kinship Calculation • Genealogical Kin Types and Kin Terms • Kin terms—labels given in particular culture to different kinds of relatives • Biological kin type—degree of actual genealogical relatedness • Bilateral kinship—people tend to perceive kin links through males and females as being similar or equal • System by which people in a society reckon kin relationships

  22. Kinship Terminology • Native taxonomy developed over generations by the people who live in particular society

  23. Kinship Terminology • Distinguishes lineal, collateral, and affinal relatives • Lineal Terminology Most Americans and Canadians use lineal terminology

  24. Kinship Terminology • Splits mother’s side from father’s side, but also merges same-sex siblings of each parent • Associated with unilineal descent and unilocal residence • Bifurcate Merging Terminology

  25. Kinship Terminology • Uses same term for parents and their siblings, but lumping is more complete • Generational terminology Typical of ambilineal societies

  26. Kinship Terminology • Separate terms used for each of the six kin types of the parental generation • Common to North Africa and the Middle East • Most particular system • Bifurcate collateral terminology

  27. Kinship Terminology • Kinship Symbols and Genealogical Kin Type Notation • Insert Figure 18.6

  28. Kinship Terminology • Lineal Kinship Terminology • Insert Figure 18.7

  29. Kinship Terminology • The Distinctions among Lineals, Collaterals, and Affinals as Perceived by Ego • Insert Figure 18.8

  30. Kinship Terminology • Bifurcate Merging Kinship Terminology • Insert Figure 18.9

  31. Kinship Terminology • Generational Kinship Terminology • Insert Figure 18.10

  32. Kinship Terminology • Bifurcate Collateral Kinship Terminology • Insert Figure 18.11

  33. Kinship Terminology • The Four Systems of Kinship Terminology, with Their Social and Economic Correlates • Insert Table 18.3