History of Computers. Definition of Computer. One who computes A device for making calculations A programmable electronic device that stores, retrieves, and processes information What was the first calculator or computer using the definition: a device for making calculations.
What was the first calculator or computer using the definition: a device for making calculations
An abacus is a calculation tool, often constructed as a wooden frame with beads sliding on wires. It was in use centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu-Arabic numeral system and is still widely used by merchants and clerks in China and elsewhere.
The origins of the abacus are disputed, as many different cultures have been known to have used similar tools. It is known to have existed in Babylonia and in China, with invention to have taken place between 2400 BC and 300 BC.
The Antikythera Mechanism is from ancient Greece (B.C.)
X-ray examination shows 30 miniaturized differential gears. The device was possibly used for calculating the position of the Sun, moon, and planets.
Diagram of the Charles Babbage difference engine from 1819.
Curta handheld mechanical calculator from 1948.
Blaise Pascal’s mechanical calculator from 1642.
The slide rule was invented by William Oughtred in 1625. The slide rule is based on Napier's ideas about logarithms - it has logarithmic scales that can be slid past each other to allow approximations to multiplication to be carried out quickly and easily.
Slide rules were in continual use by scientists and mathematicians right up until to the introduction of the first handheld calculator by Hewlett Packard in 1972.
The ENIAC was developed during the war to calculate ballistic tables.
It contained 17,468 vacuum tubes, covered 1800 square feet of floor space, weighed 30 tons, consumed 160 kilowatts of electrical power.
In one second, the ENIAC could perform 5,000 additions, 357 multiplications or 38 divisions.
Transistors, like vacuum tubes, provide amplification and switching. They can be used in radios, televisions, and also computers. Computers were made with transistors from 1954 - 1959.
IBM 650 Business Computer
In 1959, the integrated circuit was invented which allowed many
transistors to be placed on a single semiconductor material (silicon).
From 1960 – 1963, almost all integrated circuits produced were
purchased by NASA for the Apollo program.
Beginning in the 1970’s integrated circuit technology was used to
create the brains of computers. These are known as microprocessors
or Central Processing Units (CPU).
1993 – Intel Pentium
1997 – Intel Pentium II
1999 – Intel Pentium III
1971 – Intel 4004
1974 – Intel 8080
1979 – Intel 8088
2000Intel Pentium 4
1982 – Intel 80286
2006Intel Core 2
1985 – Intel 80386
1989 – Intel 80486
The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation had a profound effect on socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain and subsequently spread throughout Europe and North America. The industrial revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies.
Ditch the laptop and smart phone, your brain may directly interface to future computers for instantaneous access to all knowledge and infinite memory.
Nanotechnology will provide a new level
of miniaturization. This device is half the width of a human hair.
Humanoid robots may be common in the home in 10 – 20 years.
In a 1954 Popular Science Magazine, this was a prediction of what a home computer might be like in 50 years (2004).