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History of Computers Abacus – 1100 BC Slide rule - 1617Mechanical calculator - 1642Automatic loom (punched cards) - 1804 Babbage’s computer – 1830sBoolean logic – 1850s Hollerith’s electric tabulator - 1880Analog computer – 1927EDVAC – 1946ENIAC - 1947 Transistor - 1947 Integrated circuit – late 1950sUNIVAC – 1951Microprocessor – 1971Altair 8880 – 1975Apple II – 1977IBM PC – 1981World Wide Web – 1990s
Abacus • First true calculating machine • In use since 1100 B.C. • Still used in some countries
Slide Rule • In 1617, Scottish mathematician John Napier created a device to perform logarithm calculators • Soon after an English clergyman named William Oughtred created a device based on this and named it the “slide rule” • It remained in use for the next 350 years until the electronic calculator was invented.
First Computer • In the early 1830s, English mathematician Charles Babbage designed the analytical engine. • Intended to be used to create math tables for navigation at sea • Completely mechanical and powered by steam • Could be programmed to perform different tasks
Punched Card • First major development in computing hardware came after the results of the 1880 US Census took 7 years to tabulate • US Census Bureau conducted a contest for a faster method, and Herman Hollerith invented the punched card. • He formed company which later became IBM
Early computers • Mark I and ENIAC arrived onthe scene during WWII. They were used to calculate weapon trajectories and help build atomic bombs. • The early computers used punched cards • They were VERY expensive and used enough electricity to light up a small town. • In 1951, the UNIVAC was first mass-produced. It was the first general purpose computer. • In 1953, IBM started selling computers
First-generation Computers • VERY expensive and HUGE – required large rooms and a lot of A/C • Used vacuum tubes (slow/hot, similar to light bulbs)
Where did the term "bug" come from? Grace Hopper coined the term “bug” when there was a computer malfunction. The original “bug” was a moth that was lodged in the circuitry and created a hardware problem in a Mark I computer. Hopper “debugged” the computer byremoving the moth.
Transistors • Major breakthrough • In 1947, engineers from Bell Laboratories invented the transistor • It replaced the vacuum tubes • Much smaller, faster and more reliable • Relied on other electronic components to form circuits Portable transistor radio
Integrated Circuit • An even bigger breakthrough • In the late 1950s, engineers from Texas Instruments created integrated circuit • Instead of soldering components after the are made, they were manufactured all together on a chip of silicon • Also known as the microchip
Microprocessor • Advanced the integrated circuit even further • In the 1971, engineers from Intel Corporation designed the first microprocessor • All chips needed for the CPU were put together on one chip • Made the PC possible
Personal Computers • Altair 8800 created in 1975 as a mail-order kit • Also in 1975, Bill Gates, Paul Allen, and Monte Davidoff wrote BASIC programming language • Meanwhile Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs were busy creating the Apple II in 1977 • At this time Visicalc (spreadsheet program) was created for the Apple • In 1981, the IBM PC was created and shortly after Microsoft was formed and the MS-DOS operating system was created
The Internet is Born • In the 1990s the internet was born. This was a very significant revolution • The World Wide Web allowed us to connect to servers across the world • We can now to go to our favorite websites, to order products, to communicate via email or facebook, etc.
Handheld Computers • In early 2000’s there was an explosion of handheld computers • Examples are GPS units, tablets, smart phones • Smart phones can now do the following: handle phone calls, take pictures, run apps, do calculations, browse the internet, etc. • Personal translators act as speaking dictionaries
Cloud Computing • “Cloud computing” refers to the cloud of powerful computers (servers) on the internet • The servers provide “temporary” software that we can use at home • Examples: tax software, photoshop • Software is stored inPC memory (not yourhard drive)
History of Computers Group Activity As a group, take the different events in computer history and place them in the correct order How has the computer affected society, science and technology?
Abacus – 1100 BC Slide rule - 1617Mechanical calculator - 1642Automatic loom (punched cards) - 1804 Babbage’s computer – 1830sBoolean logic – 1850s Hollerith’s electric tabulator - 1880Analog computer – 1927EDVAC – 1946ENIAC - 1947 Transistor - 1947 Integrated circuit – late 1950sUNIVAC – 1951Microprocessor – 1971Altair 8880 – 1975Apple II – 1977IBM PC – 1981 World Wide Web – 1990s