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Manufacturing Systems. Manufacturing System Design & Control. Manufacturing System Design & Control. Facility Layout and Work Flow Arrangement within a factory of: Machines Departments Workstations Storage areas Aisles and common areas

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manufacturing systems

Manufacturing Systems

Manufacturing System Design & Control

slide2

Manufacturing System Design & Control

  • Facility Layout and Work Flow
  • Arrangement within a factory of:
    • Machines
    • Departments
    • Workstations
    • Storage areas
    • Aisles and common areas
  • Ensures a smooth flow of work, material, people and information through the system
slide3

Manufacturing System Design & Control

  • 3 three basic types of layout:
    • Process
    • Product
    • Fixed-Position
  • 3 hybrid layouts:
    • Cellular
    • Flexible Manufacturing Systems
    • Mixed-model Assembly Lines
slide4

Milling Department

Drilling Department

Lathe Department

D

D

D

D

M

M

M

L

L

D

D

D

D

L

L

Grinding Department

Painting Department

P

L

L

G

G

G

G

P

L

L

Receiving and Shipping

Assembly

A

A

A

Manufacturing System Design Control

  • Process Layout:
    • Similar activities grouped together in work areas
    • Suitable for low volume or batch production
    • Flexible
    • Not very efficient
    • Storage space – large receiving, small shipping
    • Large aisles for movement of material
slide5

IN

OUT

Manufacturing System Design Control

  • Product Layout:
    • Arrange activities in sequence of operation
    • Line set up for one product
    • Specialised machines
    • Suitable for mass production
    • More automated than process layouts
    • Efficient
    • Line flow – avoid bottlenecks
    • Not flexible
slide6

Manufacturing System Design Control

  • Fixed Position Layout:
    • Large projects too big to move
    • Equipment and parts moved in and out of work area
    • Highly skilled workers - costly
slide7

Manufacturing System Design Control

  • Hybrid Layouts:
  • Try to mix flexibility of process layout with efficiency of product layout
  • Cellular Layouts:
    • Machines grouped into cells
    • Cells process parts with similar features
    • Work cell resembles a small assembly line (product)
    • Layout between cells treated as process layout
slide8

Assembly

7

9

4

6

5

8

2

10

12

1

3

11

Raw Materials

Manufacturing System Design Control

Processed based layout

slide9

Assembly

12

8

10

4

9

6

2

11

5

7

3

1

Raw Materials

Manufacturing System Design Control

Design of work cell

slide10

Manufacturing System Design Control

  • Flexible Manufacturing Systems:
    • Automates the entire manufacture of a product
    • Very costly
    • Complex software
    • Small number of FMS worldwide
  • Flexible Manufacturing Cell:
    • Smaller version of FMS
    • One manufacturing process is automated
slide11

Load Station

Unload Station

Pallet

Progressive FMS

Manufacturing System Design Control

  • Progressive FMS:
    • All parts follow same progression through the work stations
    • Best where group technology can be applied
slide12

Load

Unload

Pallet

Closed Loop FMS

Manufacturing System Design Control

  • Closed Loop FMS:
    • Larger variety of parts
    • Parts can follow different paths
    • Parts can skip stations
slide13

Load/Unload

Manufacturing System Design Control

  • Ladder FMS layout:
    • Parts moved to and from any machine in any sequence
    • More flexible than progressive and closed loop systems
slide14

Manufacturing System Design Control

  • Mixed Model Assembly Lines:
    • More than one product is processed by the line
    • Workers trained to work on more than one station
    • Layout of line changed
    • Long and short operations arranged to cancel each other

Traditional line

U Shaped Line

slide15

Manufacturing System Design Control

  • Capacity Management:
    • Demand for product can fluctuate over time
    • Capacity < demand - Lose business
    • Excess capacity: storage cost, labour cost etc.
    • Capacity planning: match capacity to present and anticipated demand
  • Capacity Planning
    • Capacity Lead Strategy
    • Capacity Lag Strategy
    • Average Capacity Strategy
slide16

Capacity

Quantity

Demand

Time

Manufacturing System Design Control

  • Capacity Lead Strategy
    • Capacity expanded in anticipation of demand
    • Expect to gain customers from competitors
slide17

Demand

Quantity

Capacity

Time

Manufacturing System Design Control

  • Capacity Lag Strategy
    • Capacity increased after increased in demand
    • Common where competition is weak
slide18

Capacity

Quantity

Demand

Time

Manufacturing System Design Control

  • Average Strategy Lag
    • Capacity expanded to coincide with average expected demand
slide19

Manufacturing System Design Control

  • How much to increase capacity?
    • 100% capacity not efficient
    • 20% cushion is generally used
    • 20% capacity allows for unexpected demand
    • Negative capacity can be used - Airlines