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Manufacturing Systems Research. Chris Hicks. ACME grant in collaboration with NEI Objectives Identify the characteristics of companies in ETO/MTO sector Evaluate the status of CAPM Identify common CAPM problems Develop methods for modelling CAPM systems in ETO/MTO environments

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Manufacturing Systems Research


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computer aided production management systems in engineer to order companies
ACME grant in collaboration with NEI

Objectives

Identify the characteristics of companies in ETO/MTO sector

Evaluate the status of CAPM

Identify common CAPM problems

Develop methods for modelling CAPM systems in ETO/MTO environments

Apply modelling methods to identify solutions to CAPM problems

Computer Aided Production Management Systems in Engineer to Order Companies
identification of company characteristics and capm problems
Nine one day visits

Three long visits (3 days - 1 month)

Developed semi-structured “audit” methodology

Developed methods for company classification

Identification of Company Characteristics and CAPM problems
audit
Markets

Products

Processes

Manufacturing Systems

CAPM Systems

Audit
company classification
Company Classification

Jobbing

Company Type “A”

Manufacturing Process

Batch

Main product

Spares

Subcontract

Flow

Shallow

Deep

Product Structure

company type b
Company Type “B”

Jobbing

Manufacturing Process

Batch

Valves & Pumps

Motors

Cabs

Flow

Shallow

Deep

Product Structure

control approaches
Control Approaches

Project

Management

Jobbing

MRP

MRP

+ JIT

Manufacturing Process

Batch

JIT

Flow

Shallow

Deep

Product Structure

audit conclusions
Markets - demand highly variable and lumpy

Products - complex, highly customised, mix of products

Processes - wide range yet all areas tend to be controlled in same way

Manufacturing systems - mainly functional layouts, high capital employed

CAPM systems - poor integration, wide variety of subsystems, incorrect data structures, poor operational procedures, generally unsuccessful

Audit Conclusions
systems modelling
Functional models decompose complex systems using a hierarchical top-down approach. They provide a means of understanding activities and interrelationships

Information models enable structure of information to be described

Dynamic models show changing behaviour over time.

Systems Modelling
slide10

Company X - Context Diagram

a

a

Customer

Customer

Contract

ITT

Awarded

Progress

Tender

Report

Company X

ITT

Quote

Order

b

b

Supplier

Supplier

method limitations
Audit, systems analysis and data modelling provide static “snapshot” views. Longitudinal studies are a series of snapshots. No model of system dynamics.

At best enable “best practice” or potential solutions to be described and documented.

Not possible to perform experiments to examine alternative configurations and evaluate them in terms of specified performance criteria

Method Limitations
simulation
Allows modelling of system dynamics

Very expensive in terms of model building and computational resources

Validation often a problem

Predominantly used for either small scale models or rough-cut high level models

Simulation
key features
Large scale model allows whole manufacturing facilities to be represented

Models facilities, products, processes and planning and control systems

Many product families can be represented with shallow, medium or deep product structure

Data structures match ETO/MTO requirements

Allows variety of planning and control methods to meet local requirements

May be used as a research tool or for planning and simulation.

Key Features
simulation case study
Heavy Machine Shop used for case study

Static configuration used layout and other resource constraint information

BOM information obtained for products

Process data and planning data obtained for 18 month period.

Simulation Case Study
experimental design
Series of full factorial experiments

Factors

Process - assembly lead time, minimum set-up, machining and transfer

CAPM, scheduling methods, BOMs, dispatching rules, capacity planning

Product mix / load

Operational - data update period

Experimental Design
conclusions
Assembly planning and capacity planning important CAPM subsystems

“Dispatching” rules not very significant

Manufacturing performance sensitive to transfer times.

Significant advantages gained through having close control of key resources

Real time data recording led to improved manufacturing performance

Conclusions
consequent research topics
Manufacturing Layout (Hinrichs, Wall)

Capacity planning (Tay, Holmes, Hines, Pongcharoen)

Assembly planning (Sullivan ..)

Planning of product development activities

Planning under uncertainty (Wall, Brand, Song)

Integration of project planning methods with MRP type approaches (EPSRC proposal)

Plan Optimisation through Genetic Algorithms

Consequent research topics
manufacturing layout
All data required for layout analysis, clustering and generation in simulation data structures

Work started with Chris Lee who was interested in improving the layout of Vickers’ Scotswood Road factory

Much work in layout has focused on moving from functional layout to cellular layouts

Manufacturing Layout
methods
Clustering

Matrix based methods

Similarity coefficient methods

Layout generation

Starting with some candidate solution generate new layout that minimises (maximises) some objective function

Simulated annealing

Genetic algorithms

Methods
capacity planning
Finite / infinite loading

Re-planning rules (Tay)

Finite loading rules (Holmes)

Interactive tools (Hines, Poncharoen)

Schedule “optimisation” (Poncharoen)

Capacity Planning
supply chain management
ETO companies moving towards buy rather than make

Business process analysis approach (McGovern, Earl, Harrison, Hamilton)

Agent based modelling of supply chains (Harvey, McLeay, Hines)

Supply Chain Management
it implementation
Embodies audit, business process analysis and requirements definition

Transfer of computing expertise

3 Teaching Company Schemes

IT Implementation
layout design effect on benchmarks
Tony Wells Siemens Semiconductors

Data from North Tyneside, US, Germany, Taiwan.

Pareto analysis of costs

Identification of cost drivers

Relating cost drivers to plant design configurations

Results so far: potential cost reduction of 50% on £30m/annum -pity the plant has closed!

Layout design & effect on benchmarks
management of knowledge
Data modelling / systems analysis based upon thematic knowledge that is formal, explicit and easily shared

Knowledge management requires knowledge of product and process structure

“Tacit” or embedded knowledge that is disorganised, informal, context dependent and relatively inaccessible often important.

Interested in developing methodologies for systems integration that include both thematic and tacit knowledge

LABS Proposal with Paul Braiden

Management of Knowledge
other activities
£180k EDF grant with ISRU to develop distance learning material (Dave Stewardson & Mark Gary)

TCS with House of Hardy aimed at improving manufacturing efficiency (Rob Davidson & Paul Braiden)

Other Activities
summary
Wide portfolio of manufacturing systems research

Various types of research undertaken from the theoretical through to applied.

“Market led” rather than “product led”

Summary