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Ch. 10 – Word Identification Short Vowels Onsets & Rimes Consonant Clusters & Digraphs Long Vowels R-Controlled Vowels Special Vowel Combinations Phonic Generalizations
Short Vowels • After consonants are taught • Before long vowels • Most first words are c-v-c
Short Vowels • How to teach? • Direct practice • Connected Text Reading • Decodable books Reading A-Z
Onsets and Rimes • Onsets: the part of the syllable that comes before the vowel • Rimes: AKA phonograms or word families • Provides strategy for identifying unknown words
Onsets & Rimes- Games • Tic-Tac-Toe • Hink Pinks • Make a Crazy Story
Make a Crazy Story • Mary went for a walk with her cat bat. They sat in the park for awhile and played with a small tall dog.
Clusters & Digraphs Activities • Word sorts • Group-Response Activity “She wore braces now her teeth are __ He is not weak, he is ___”
Long Vowel Sounds • Easier to learn • Sounds like the name • Same teaching strategies as Short Vowels • Writing
R-Controlled Vowels • When a vowel is followed by an R • Hard to learn • Many variations for same sound • How to teach? • Read stories • Matching activity (hands-on)
Special Vowel Combinations • Dipthong: gliding sound • Digraph: 2 vowels make 1 sound • Not taught as separate categories, but fall under Special Vowel Combinations • Infrequent and/or too many exceptions
Important Special Vowel Combinations • AU -OI -OY -OO -OU
Phonic Generalizations • Teach after basics • Obviously aids reading fluency • Provide opportunities • Memorize vs. Internalize
Phonic Generalizations • Common Vowel • Short vowels between 2 consonants • 71% • When 2 vowels are together the first one does the talking • 34% • Silent e at the end means a long vowel before • 57%
Phonic Generalizations • Can you think of any?
Phonic Generalizations • Obstacles • Prompting • Many exceptions to the rules • “get” “friend” “way” “sew” “bread” • Can you think of any?
Phonic Generalizations • Help with Onsets and Rimes • “The human brain appears to have greater facility for detecting patterns than for applying rules”
Phonic Myths • Direct –Practice activities are good enough • Middle & High School will never get it • It’s for bright students only • It’s the only way to teach reading