FRQ & Math Tips

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FRQ &amp; Math Tips. Viry , Drew, Lori, and Mara. Equations. Although the math section of the AP Environmental Science exam may seem daunting, there are some simple equations and conversions that could greatly benefit you. Population Density= Population ÷ Area

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FRQ & Math Tips

Viry, Drew, Lori, and Mara

Equations

Although the math section of the AP Environmental Science exam may seem daunting, there are some simple equations and conversions that could greatly benefit you.

Population Density= Population ÷ Area

Birth/Death Rate= Number of births/deaths ÷ Number of people

Growth Rate= [(Birth+Immigration) – (Death+Emmigration)] ÷ Initial Population, multiplied by 100

Doubling Time= Rule of 70= 70 ÷ Growth Rate

Conversions

Length1 inch (in) =  2.54 centimeters (cm) exactly1 foot (ft) =  0.305 meters (m)1 yard (yd)  = 0.914 meters (m)1 mile (mi) = 5280 feet (ft)  =  1.61 kilometers (km)1 centimeter (cm)  = 0.394 inches (in)1 meter (m)  = 100 centimeters (cm)  =  39.4 inches (in) = 3.28 feet (ft)  =  1.09 yards (yd)1 kilometer (km) = 1000 meters (m)  = 0.621 miles (mi)

Area  =  length  x  width1 square inch (in2) =  0.00694 square feet (ft2  =  6.45 square centimeters, cm21 square foot, (ft2) =  144 square inches (in2  =  0.0929 square meters, m21 square yard (yd2  =  1296 square inches (in2  =  9 square feet (ft2  =  0.836 square meters (m21 square mile (mi2  =  640 acres  =  2.59 square kilometers (km21 acre  = 160 square rods  =  43,560 square feet (ft2) =  0.405 hectares1 hectare  =  10,000 square meters (m2  =  100 ares  =  2.47 acres

Volume =  length  x  width  x  height1 cubic inch (in3) =  0.000579 cubic feet (ft3) =  16.4 cubic centimeters (cm3)1 cubic foot (ft3) =  1728 cubic inch (in3) =  0.0283 cubic meters (m3)1 cubic yard (yd3) =  27 cubic feet (ft3) =  4.65 x 104 cubic inch (in3) =  0.765 cubic meters (m3)1 cubic meters (m3) =  106 cubic centimeters (cm3) =  1,000 liters (L)  =  35.3 cubic feet (ft3)1 quart (qt)  =  2 pints (pt) = 946 milliliters (mL) = 0.946 liters (L)1 gallon (gal) = 4 quarts  = 231 cubic inch (in3) =  3.79 liters (L)1 liter (L) =  1000 cubic centimeters (cm3) = 1.06 quarts (qt) = 0.265 gallons (gal)

Mass1 kilogram (kg) =  1,000 grams

TemperatureoF =  9/5  x  oC  + 32oC = (oF  -  32)  x  5/9Absolute Temperature, kelvin, K  =  oC  +  273.150 K  =  -273.15 oC  =  -459.72 oFNormal Body Temperature  =  98.6 oF

Work and Energy or Heat Work  =  Force  x  parallel distance1 joule, J  =  0.738 ft . lb  =  107 ergs1 calorie, cal  =  4.18 J  =  0.00442 British Thermal Units, Btu

Power  =  Work/time1 Watt, W  =  1 J/s  =  0.738 ft·lb/s  =  0.00134 hp1 kW  =  1.34 hp

Do’s and Don’t’s

DOwrite clearly and neatly.

DO go into detail.

DO carefully label your diagrams–they get no points otherwise!

DO bring a watch to pace yourself!

• DON’Tramble! Get to the point and move on to the next question.
• DON’T use a pencil. Essays in pencil will not even be graded.
• DON’T panic. You will not know everything on the test.
• DON’T worry about spelling or grammar, but keep in mind that very poor spelling and grammar may confuse the reader.
• DON’T leave questions blank–there is no penalty for guessing.
• Most importantly: DON’T QUIT!
Tips

Read through all of the questions to determine which you feel most prepared to answer.

Erasing wastes time–just write a line through whatever you think is incorrect.

Don’t forget to include the proper units!