FRQ & Math Tips. Viry , Drew, Lori, and Mara. Equations. Although the math section of the AP Environmental Science exam may seem daunting, there are some simple equations and conversions that could greatly benefit you. Population Density= Population ÷ Area
Viry, Drew, Lori, and Mara
Although the math section of the AP Environmental Science exam may seem daunting, there are some simple equations and conversions that could greatly benefit you.
Population Density= Population ÷ Area
Birth/Death Rate= Number of births/deaths ÷ Number of people
Growth Rate= [(Birth+Immigration) – (Death+Emmigration)] ÷ Initial Population, multiplied by 100
Doubling Time= Rule of 70= 70 ÷ Growth Rate
Length1 inch (in) = 2.54 centimeters (cm) exactly1 foot (ft) = 0.305 meters (m)1 yard (yd) = 0.914 meters (m)1 mile (mi) = 5280 feet (ft) = 1.61 kilometers (km)1 centimeter (cm) = 0.394 inches (in)1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm) = 39.4 inches (in) = 3.28 feet (ft) = 1.09 yards (yd)1 kilometer (km) = 1000 meters (m) = 0.621 miles (mi)
Area = length x width1 square inch (in2) = 0.00694 square feet (ft2 = 6.45 square centimeters, cm21 square foot, (ft2) = 144 square inches (in2 = 0.0929 square meters, m21 square yard (yd2 = 1296 square inches (in2 = 9 square feet (ft2 = 0.836 square meters (m21 square mile (mi2 = 640 acres = 2.59 square kilometers (km21 acre = 160 square rods = 43,560 square feet (ft2) = 0.405 hectares1 hectare = 10,000 square meters (m2 = 100 ares = 2.47 acres
Volume = length x width x height1 cubic inch (in3) = 0.000579 cubic feet (ft3) = 16.4 cubic centimeters (cm3)1 cubic foot (ft3) = 1728 cubic inch (in3) = 0.0283 cubic meters (m3)1 cubic yard (yd3) = 27 cubic feet (ft3) = 4.65 x 104 cubic inch (in3) = 0.765 cubic meters (m3)1 cubic meters (m3) = 106 cubic centimeters (cm3) = 1,000 liters (L) = 35.3 cubic feet (ft3)1 quart (qt) = 2 pints (pt) = 946 milliliters (mL) = 0.946 liters (L)1 gallon (gal) = 4 quarts = 231 cubic inch (in3) = 3.79 liters (L)1 liter (L) = 1000 cubic centimeters (cm3) = 1.06 quarts (qt) = 0.265 gallons (gal)
Mass1 kilogram (kg) = 1,000 grams
TemperatureoF = 9/5 x oC + 32oC = (oF - 32) x 5/9Absolute Temperature, kelvin, K = oC + 273.150 K = -273.15 oC = -459.72 oFNormal Body Temperature = 98.6 oF
Work and Energy or Heat Work = Force x parallel distance1 joule, J = 0.738 ft . lb = 107 ergs1 calorie, cal = 4.18 J = 0.00442 British Thermal Units, Btu
Power = Work/time1 Watt, W = 1 J/s = 0.738 ft·lb/s = 0.00134 hp1 kW = 1.34 hp
DOread questions thoroughly.
DO make sure to answer everything that is being asked.
DOwrite clearly and neatly.
DO go into detail.
DO carefully label your diagrams–they get no points otherwise!
DO bring a watch to pace yourself!
Read through all of the questions to determine which you feel most prepared to answer.
Erasing wastes time–just write a line through whatever you think is incorrect.
Don’t forget to include the proper units!
Organize your answers.
At least attempt the math questions–most students don’t even attempt them.