World War I Winning the War Chp. 14 section 4 pp. 388-391
4 Setting the Scene* • By 1917 most of Europe instead of standing behind war heroes were criticizing the leaders that wasted so many lives. “You smug-faced crowds with kindling eye Who cheer when soldier lads march by Sneak home and pray you’ll never know the hell where youth and laughter go.” ~Siegfried Sassoon • Three years into the war, a revolution in Russia and the entry of the United States into the war would upset the balance of forces and finally end the long stalemate
Total War* Warring nations engaged in total war, the channeling of a nation’s entire resources into a war effort.
Economic Impact • All nations except Britain imposed universal military conscription, or “the draft.” • Both sides set up systems to recruit, arm, transport and supply huge fighting forces. • Governments raised taxes, borrowed money, and rationed food and other products. Volunteer to Defeat the Enemy!!! Never mind we will just DRAFT all of you GUYS!!
Propaganda War • Total war meant controlling public opinion. In all countries boards censored what was in the press, trying to make sure citizens didn’t know how bad the war really was. These censors went so far as to control popular books, historical writings, motion pictures, and the arts. • Both sides waged a propaganda war. Propaganda is the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause. In Allied countries Germans were portrayed as evil war mongers • British and French writers spread tales of Atrocities, horrible acts against innocent people. Most times these stories were exaggerated or simply made up. WWI Propaganda
Impact on Women Women played a critical role in total war: • As men left to fight, women took over their jobs and kept national companies going. • Many women worked in war industries, manufacturing weapons and supplies. • Women grew food when shortages threatened. • Some women joined branches of the armed forces. • Women worked as nurses close to the front lines. • Vera Britain describes sweating through 90-degree days in France “Stopping hemorrhages, replacing intestines, and draining and reinserting innumerable rubber tubes with gruesome human remains heaped on the floor”
Collapsing Morale* • By 1917, the morale of both troops and civilians had plunged. Germany was sending 15-year-old recruits to the front. Britain was on the brink of bankruptcy. Long casualty lists, food shortages, and the failure of generals to win promised victories led to calls for peace. • As morale collapsed, troops mutinied in some French units. In Italy, many soldiers deserted during the retreat at Caporetto. In Russia, soldiers left the front to join in a full-scale revolution back home
Revolution in Russia • War had hit Russia hard and after 3 years riots over bread in St. Petersburg became a full scale rebellion. The Tsar was overthrown and his family executed. • The allies believed this was a good thing, but when Vladimir Lenin became the leader he signed the treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany and Russia withdrew from WWI.
Impact on the War • Russia’s withdrawal had an immediate impact on the war. With Russia out of the struggle, Germany could concentrate its Armies on the Western front. • The Central Powers were prepared to win the War • WHAT HAPPENED?? • A “Sleeping Colossus” like the world had never seen was awakened!
The United States Declares War • Soon after the Russian withdraw another event altered the balance of forces • The United States declared war on Germany May 6, 1917
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare • One of the major reasons the United States entered WWI was because of the German U-Boat attacks on merchant ships • President Woodrow Wilson insisted that neutral ships had a right to safe passage, but the Germans continued to sink ships, saying they carried supplies to the allies • On May 7, 1915 a German U-Boat sunk the Lusitania a British luxury liner caring over 1200 passengers, 128 Americans died. • President Wilson forced Germany to agree to warn any merchant or passenger ship before firing to allow neutral citizens time to jump ship • By December 1916 Germany began sinking any ship they found on the high seas • President Wilson then denounces Germany, first step to war
Cultural Ties • Many Americans supported the Allies. They had strong feelings for the British, because of culture and language, and a great support of France who aided in the revolutionary war and was also a democracy • Many German Americans favored the Central Powers, along with the American Irish who hated the British and the Russian Jews who despised the Tsar!
Zimmerman Note • In 1917 British intelligence intercepted a message from the German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmermann, to his ambassador in Mexico. Zimmermann promised that, in return for Mexican support, Germany would help Mexico “to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona.” Britain revealed the Zimmermann note to the American government. When the note became public, anti-German feeling intensified in the U.S. And patriots demanded WAR
Declaring War • In April 1917 President Wilson asked Congress* to declare war “We have no selfish ends to serve… this war will make the world safe for war… and this war is a war to end all wars!” • The United States declared war on Germany on May 6, 1917 and Austria December 7, 1917 • It took the U.S. months to recruit, train, supply , and transport a modern army across the Atlantic, but by 1918 there were over 2,000,000 U.S. troops in Europe • The troops gave moral a boost in the Allied army as well as the U.S. provided money for the war!!!
The Fourteen Points President Woodrow Wilson issued the Fourteen Points, a list of his terms for resolving World War I and future wars. He called for: • freedom of the seas • free trade • large-scale reductions of arms • an end to secret treaties • self-determination, or the right of people to choose their own form of government, for Eastern Europe • the creation of a “general association of nations” to keep the peace in the future
Campaign to Victory In 1917, The United States declared war on Germany. By 1918, about two million American soldiers had joined the Allies on the Western Front. The Germans launched a huge offensive, pushing the Allies back. The Allies launched a counteroffensive, driving German forces back across France and Germany. Germany sought an armistice, or agreement to end fighting, with the Allies. On November 11, 1918, the war ended.
11:00am November 11, 1918 Train car outside Rethondes, France