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Forward to the Past Simone Jeronimo Prital Patel Jennifer Skorupa Kathleen Tower
Administration building, dark hallway, Island 3 Measles ward, shattered door study, Island 3
DeteriorationDue to Water • If a material takes on water at one time, and then releases it at another, there will be expansion and contraction that will lead to the destruction of the material. • Water causes more deterioration than temperature changes. • Examples of deterioration due to water: • Corrosion • Decay • Blistering • Efflorescence • Leeching
Corrosion • Corrosion is an electrolytic action. An electrical potential causes a current to flow, and an electrolyte is needed to complete the circuit. • The electrical potential is provided by a metal. • An electrolyte is provided by water. • If oxygen is present, pure water corrosion can still take place. • Without water, the material will not corrode.
Decay • Rotting is caused by the growth of fungi in the wood tissue. • Conditions to be satisfied: • Food, provided by the wood, for the fungus to feed on • Air • Temperature must be within a certain range – between 70 F and 90 F • Moisture must be available • The only way to prevent decay is to keep the material completely dry or completely saturated. • By using wood preservatives, the food source for fungi can be poisoned.
Caldwell Parsonage • The original parsonage was home to Reverend James and Hannah Caldwell. • It was first constructed in 1730, but was burned down in 1780 by the British and Hessians during the Revolutionary War, following the murder of Mrs. Caldwell. • In 1782, the Caldwell Parsonage was constructed upon the original foundation. • To this day, it remains a well-preserved example of a late 18th century farmhouse.
Caldwell Parsonage Today • Today, the Caldwell Parsonage is used as a recreational and cultural museum. • The restoration of the Caldwell Parsonage is centered around maintaining the story associated with this historic site. • The restoration took the building back to its colonial interior rather than reconstruction its 19th century gothic one. • There is even restoration continuing today such as to the chimney, instillation of new electrical services and fixtures, and instillation of exit lights.
The Staff House Current Building Supplies • Hardwood (Floor) • Brick (Fireplace) • Wood (Molding) • Terra Cotta (Insulation) • Plaster (Walls) • Mortar (Between Terra Cotta) • Metal (Piping) Reasons for Deterioration • Water from the Hudson • Elements from the Weather • Age
Terra Cotta • Terra Cotta is made from a mixture of fine-grained clays containing silica, alumina, and some alkaline matter that vitrify when fired in a kiln. • It is harder and more compact than brick. • Mortar was placed between each terra cotta block. • Mortar is made up of cement, lime, and sand.
Terra Cotta vs. Modern-Day Insulation • The Terra Cotta that is currently in the Staff House seems to be in good condition. • Complete Terra Cotta replacement is expensive and time-consuming. • Modern fiberglass insulation should be added to any places that need additional insulation. • In order to preserve wall design, fiberglass can be cut to fit. • In contrast, stone or terra cotta would be more difficult to fit to shape.
Sheetrock • Currently, plaster covers the terra cotta insulation in the walls. • Plaster has a tendency to remain soft, even after drying, which makes it better for finishing, rather than being a load-bearing material. • Today, sheetrock, also known as drywall, is commonly used in building. It is much stronger and easier to install. • It is also good to note that sheetrock is fireproof.
Specific Heat Capacity • Specific heat capacity, or c, is the amount of energy required to change the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree C. • The specific heat capacity for brick is 0.84 kJ/kgC. • Because of brick’s specific heat, the outside of the building was able to sustain harsh climates.
Now what? • These suggestions to restore the Staff House would allow Ellis Island to retain it’s past identity while existing in the present. • By restoring the south side of Ellis Island, Americans interested in their lineage will be able to experience Ellis Island as their ancestors once did. • Americans would benefit from the Staff House’s restoration into a museum.
Credits Actors Speaker #1 Jennifer Skorupa Speaker #2 Kathleen Tower Speaker #3 Prital Patel Speaker #4 Simone Jeronimo Videographer Kimberly Tower Screenplay Simone Jeronimo Prital Patel Jennifer Skorupa Kathleen Tower