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Population Genetics • The Hardy-Weinberg principle • Factors that can change allele frequencies
A. The Hardy-Weinberg Principle • The frequency of an allele in a population will remain constant over time, provided that the following conditions are met: • The population is large and randomly breeding • There are no conditions acting on the population to change the allele frequency
A. The Hardy-Weinberg Principle • Consider a gene that has two alleles, A and a • Let p = the frequency of A (in a population)q = the frequency of a • The frequency of AA = p2The frequency of aa = q2The frequency of Aa = 2pqp2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
B. Factors That Change Allele Frequencies • Mutation • Migration • Natural selection • Random genetic drift