Course Agenda 1 NOTE CARDS
Clement I (96) Pope, martyr & Apostolic Father • Pope (91-96). • He settled controversies by writing letters, showing the recognized authority of the papacy.
Constantine (d. 338) Emperor of the Roman Empire • He won the battle of ‘SaxaRubra’ after he saw the sign: ‘in hoc signovinces’. • He issued the Edict of Milan (313) legalizing Christianity. • He called the Council of Nicaea. • He was finally baptized a Christian in 337, shortly before his death. • His mother was St. Helen.
Cyprian of Carthage (d. 258) Bishop of Carthage & Martyr • Forced to become bishop. • After difficulty with Christians guilty of apostasy, he called a council to settle the dispute. • He wrote On the Unity of the Church, declaring, “No salvation outside the Church.” Although his words meant well (to fight heresies), his words haunt the Church for 1500 years.
Ignatius of Antioch (d. ca. 107) Bishop of Antioch, martyr & Apostolic Father • First to use the term “Catholic Church.” • He fought for the primacy of the pope.
Irenaeus of Lyons (d. 200) Bishop of Lyons & Church Father • He defended the Church by combating heresies, especially Gnosticism. • He emphasized the episcopacy, Sacred Scripture, and Apostolic Tradition. • He wrote Against the Heresies (against Gnosticism). • He created the first creed, “Rule of Faith.” • He created an early version of the New Testament canon.
Nero (Emperor: 54-68) Emperor of the Roman Empire • In July 64, he blamed Rome’s great fire on the Christians. • First to truly persecute Christians, including Peter and Paul. • He tortured Christians and declared Christianity unlawful.
Origen of Alexandria (d. 254) Confessor, Writer, Biblical scholar, & Church Father • He was the head of the first Catechetical School and university in Alexandria. • He was respected and admired for his “great mind.” • He was tortured during the reign of Emperor Decius. • We credit him with inventing the homily.
Paul (d. ca. 64) Apostle to the Gentiles • Born Saul of Tarsus. • Pious Jew who persecuted Christians until his conversion on the road to Damascus. • Became a leader of the Christians, traveling and spreading the Good News to Jews and Gentiles alike. • Opponent to James at the Council of Jerusalem (49), and became the Apostle to the Gentiles. • Wrote many New Testament Epistles. • Beheaded under the rule of Caesar Nero in Rome.
Peter (d. ca. 64) Apostle & first Pope • Apostle who ends up in Rome as the first Bishop of Rome (hence first Pope). • Founder of the Church. • Crucified upside-down under Caesar Nero. • Led the Council of Jerusalem.