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Traditional Questions Asked in Analyses of Migration. 1 . How many migrate? 2. Who migrates? 3. Why do these people migrate? 4. Where do they come from and where do they go? 5. When do they migrate? 6. What consequences result from migration?.

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traditional questions asked in analyses of migration
Traditional Questions Asked in Analyses of Migration

1 . How many migrate?

2. Who migrates?

3. Why do these people migrate?

4. Where do they come from and where do they go?

5. When do they migrate?

6. What consequences result from migration?

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Determinants of migration (or the factors that influence the decision to migrate and the relative magnitude of each factor):

1. How many migrate?

2. Who migrates? Personal/family characteristics, such as age, education, race, income, marital status, etc.

3. Why do these people migrate? Jobs, wages, amenities, family/friends, provision of public services (e.g., welfare).

4. Where do the migrants come from and where do they go?

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5. When do they migrate? Emphasis on the temporal dimension. Demographic transition, rural/urban, national business conditions, changing demographic conditions and related cohort effects.

6. What are the consequences of migration?

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Consequences of migration:

Consequences of migration for

1. the migrants themselves (first generation migrants), and

2. their offspring (second generation migrants).

When we compare the migrants and their offspring to “otherwise comparable” native-born persons, we refer to the assimilation of the immigrants.

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1. Consequences for the migrants themselves and their offspring:

We could consider all sorts of behavioral aspects of the immigrant assimilation, such as

a. earnings,

b. labor force participation,

c. welfare participation,

d. internal migration,

e. fertility,

f. education.

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2. Consequences for others at the origin and destination:

a. Origin -

i. reduce labor supply and possible increased wage rates.

ii. deprive source regions of critically needed human capital.

iii. remittances sent to former home area.

iv. skills learned abroad by return migrants.

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b. Destination -

i. increase labor supply and cause lower wage rates.

ii. increase demands for locally provided public service like education and welfare, which may constitute transfers from natives to immigrants through the public sector (i.e., through taxes and transfers).

iii. provide critically needed human capital/skills.

iv. make remittances, which are a leakage from the income stream of the destination country.