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Reminder 1: Your 5-10 photos are due today ! …most of you already have them. Worth 5 Points !. Also, make sure you have 5-10 photos for your longer Plant-Report ! . Reminder 2: Exam-3 is next Friday! Chapter 37 (all) Chapter 38 (pp. 781-784, 787-792) and

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Reminder 1:

Your 5-10 photos are due today !

…most of you already have them

Worth 5 Points !

Also, make sure you have 5-10 photos

for your longer Plant-Report !

slide2

Reminder 2:

Exam-3 is next Friday!

Chapter 37 (all)

Chapter 38 (pp. 781-784, 787-792) and

related pages on water, chemistry, etc.

Chapter 39 (pp. 795-801)

…this is what we will be covering the next three lectures

slide3

Reminder 3 :

Office Visits need to be completed

by next Thursday!

…about 1/3 of class is finished

..only takes about a half-hour.

…e-mail for appointments.

Worth 5 Points !

slide4

Announcement:

Lab Next Week = Field Trip

….to Louisville Nature Preserve !

…so dress appropriately

slide7

p. 782

Pages

41-58

Page

153

slide8

*

There are other minerals that are

required by animals (but not plants):

Sodium

Iodine*

Chromium*

Selenium*

Cobalt*

Fluorine

* note that some of these can occur as radioactive isotopes

slide11

‘Wooden Barrel Model’

demonstrating the

Principle of Limiting Factors

of plant growth

slide12

*

Now, Limiting Factor

Is Potassium

add nitrogen

Factors For Optimal Plant Growth

Limiting Factor is Nitrogen

slide13

p. 782

Most

Often

Needed

slide14

*

Numbers = % Fertilizer Weight

slide17

Root growth depends more

on Phosphorus & Potassium

Ginseng

slide18

Flowers & Fruits also need

more Phosphorus & Potassium

But it really depends on species

slide19

Plants absorb just about any mineral

elements that happen to be in the soil…

*

Some plants are even “Hyperaccumulators”

(absorbing more than 100x more chemical

than what is in the soil)

slide20

Locoweed (Colorado)

absorbs selenium.

If eaten by cattle or horses

it cause tremors & lack of

coordination (‘loco’ is spanish

for crazy).

This plant is in the Legume family.

slide21

Dr. Chris Anderson, New Zealand,

is mining gold by growing plants

near old gold mines (in the ‘tailing waste’)

He is finding concentrations of gold at

100 ppm in the plants. The trick is simply

to extract the gold cheaply.

slide22

*

‘Phytoremediation’ = using plants to reduce pollution

  • Absorbs pollutant and either
  • metabolizes it (breaking it down) or
  • at least, concentrates it in the plant.
  • Reduces erosion of the polluted soil
  • by the action of the roots holding on
  • to the soil.
slide24

old Army Ammunition Dump

St. Paul, Minnesota

slide25

Chernobyl Nuclear Power Accident, 1986

Float sunflower plants in a pond

near the nuclear power plant.

The plants absorbed 8000x more

radioactive cesium, and

2000x more radioactive strontium

than what was found in the pond!

slide28

*

Three Factors that can affect plant uptake of nutrients:

1) Soil pH = concentration of H+

  • Acid Soils Tend to Have:
  • Higher Rainfall
  • Higher Amounts of Decaying Plant Debris in Soil
  • Alkaline Soils Tend to Have:
  • Lower Rainfall
  • Lower Amounts of Decaying Plant Debris in Soil

Which type of soil do you think Kentucky has?

slide29

*

The way to overcome acidity =

….add Lime (CaCO3)

(calcium carbonate)

  • In Acidic soils, some minerals become deficient
  • (like Phosphorus and Molybdenum)
  • Other minerals are more soluble at higher acidity
  • and so are taken up more readily by plants:
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Manganese
  • Magnesium
  • Boron
  • Copper
  • One mineral (aluminum) can even become toxic
  • to the plant because it is so soluble.
slide30

*

Three Factors that can affect plant uptake of nutrients:

2) Biological Activity

  • Three primary examples:
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Earthworms
slide32

Announcement:

Lab Next Week = Field Trip

….to Louisville Nature Preserve !

…so dress appropriately

slide34

*

Symbiotic Root Nodules = Nitrogen-fixing bacteria

living inside specialized root structures

Bacteria

Only members of Legume Family (pea, bean, lentils,

clover, alfalfa, soybean, peanut, etc.)

slide35

*

…only occurs in certain bacteria

slide36

An acre of alfalfa can capture

up to 200 lbs of nitrogen per year !

slide38

The “Dead Zone” in the Gulf of Mexico is due to overstimulated

phytoplankton growth (called ‘blooms’). When they die and settle

to bottom of ocean. Their decompostion consumes too much

oxygen, which leads to fish death, etc.

*

slide39

*

Earthworms

Giant earthworm (Australia)

One earthworm digests 1 ton of soil per year

  • Aerates soil
  • Recycles nutrients

Castings

slide40

Joke

Three Factors that can affect plant uptake of nutrients:

*

3) Soil Texture:

“The relative concentrations of

Sand, Silt, Clay”

Sand = .02 - 2 mm diameter

Silt = .002 - .02 mm

Clay = less than .002 mm

slide45

*

  • Advantages of sandy soil:
  • - good aeration
  • good drainage
  • can’t be compacted
  • - warms easily
  • Disadvantages of sandy soil:
  • - poor water-holding capacity
  • - poor nutrient-holding capacity
slide47

Has few air spaces because

particles fit together so closely

slide49

*

Pure clay can be molded

into any shape you want…

…and when it dries doesn’t

“crack”….that shows how few

air/water spaces there are.

slide50

*

Clay is

Negatively-charged....

…so attracts

Positively-charged

minerals (cations).

This represent a

‘storage facility’ for cations.

slide51

p. 782

*

Pages

41-58

Page

153

Look at all of the Cations

required by plants

(and animals)!

slide52

*

Joke

  • Advantages of clay soil:
  • good water-holding capacity (for what
  • water it holds)
  • - good nutrient-holding capacity
  • Disadvantages of clay soil:
  • - poor drainage
  • poor aeration
  • doesn’t hold onto very much water
  • too much compaction
  • - a “cold” soil
slide53

Silt

…is really just eroded sand…

…has less of the advantages of sand,

and still low water- & nutrient-holding capacity

slide55

*

Soil Texture

Triangle

Best type of soil

slide56

*

Soil Texture

Triangle

Best type of soil

What is the % of Sand,

Silt & Clay in Loam?

slide57

So ideally you want a “Loam Soil”

- good aeration

- good water-holding

- “warm” soil

- holds nutrients well

slide59

*

  • Advantages of Humus:
  • Humus has all the advantages of sand, silt and clay without
  • all of the disadvantages. For instance, as it decomposes it
  • becomes negatively-charged (like clay), but it ‘holds-on’
  • to water very well.
  • 3) It acts as a “time-release fertilizer”…as the organic matter
  • decays, it’s nutrients get recycled back into the soil.
slide60

Farmers and Gardeners can add humus by:

  • Adding ground-bark, peat-moss, animal manure,
  • compost (decaying leaves, grass clippings, etc)….
  • 2) use “Green Manure” = grow plants (clover,
  • turfgrass) and then plow it into the soil

*

slide61

Done a lot by

Chinese farmers…

…but now being done

by the Louisville

Sewer District, too!

slide62

What can plants do to protect themselves from being attacked by:

Animals (insects, mammals, birds, fish, etc.)

Bacteria

Fungi