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15-2 Evidence of Evolution. Fossil record - by examining fossils from sequential layers of rock, one could view how a species had changed and produced different species over time, as shown in the figure at right. Geographical distribution of living species Comparative Biochemistry

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evidence of evolution
Fossil record - by examining fossils from sequential layers of rock, one could view how a species had changed and produced different species over time, as shown in the figure at right.

Geographical distribution of living species

Comparative Biochemistry

Comparative Embryology

5. Homologous structures of living organisms

structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues

Not all homologous structures serve important functions.

Vestigial organs (the organs of many animals are so reduced in size that they are just vestiges, or traces, of homologous organs in other species.

Evidence of Evolution:
slide3

Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Evidence of Evolution

  • The fossil record
  • Fossils provide a record of species that lived long ago.
  • Fossils show that ancient species share similarities with species that now live on Earth.

Armadillo

Glyptodont

slide4

Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Evidence of Evolution

  • Derived traits are newly evolved features, such as feathers, that do not appear in the fossils of common ancestors.
  • Ancestral traits are more primitive features, such as teeth and tails, that do appear in ancestral forms.
  • Anatomically similar structures inherited from a common ancestor are called homologous structures.
slide5

 Homologous Body Structures

Section 15-3

Turtle

Alligator

Mammals

Bird

Typical primitive fish

slide6

Evolution

  • Evolutionary theory

predicts that features of ancestors that no

longer have a function for that species will

become smaller over time until they are lost.

Chapter 15

15.2 Evidence of Evolution

Vestigial Structures

  • Structures that are the reduced forms of functional structures in other organisms.
slide7

Evolution

  • Analogous structurescan be used for the same purpose and can be superficially similar in construction, but are not

inherited from a

common ancestor.

Chapter 15

15.2 Evidence of Evolution

  • Show that functionally similar features can evolve independently in similar environments
slide8

Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Evidence of Evolution

Comparative Embryology

  • Vertebrate embryos exhibit homologous structures during certain phases of development but become totally different structures in the adult forms.
slide9

Changes in developmental genes are one major pattern of macroevolution.

  • Fossil evidence shows that some ancient insects (top left) had no wings, but others (top right) had winglike structures on many body segments.
  • In modern insects (bottom), genes may turn off wing development in all except one or two body segments.
slide10

All of these organisms probably share some of the same genes.

  • All of these organisms show many body changes during their development as embryos.
  • This diagram shows descent with modification, which indicates common ancestry.
slide11

Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Evidence of Evolution

Comparative Biochemistry

  • Common ancestry can be seen in the complex metabolic molecules that many different organisms share.
slide12

Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Evidence of Evolution

  • Comparisons of the similarities in these molecules across species reflect evolutionary patterns seen in comparative anatomy and in the fossil record.
  • Organisms with closely related morphological features have more closely related molecular features.
slide13

Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Evidence of Evolution

Geographic Distribution

  • The distribution of plants and animals that Darwin saw first suggested evolution to Darwin.

Rabbit

Mara

slide14

Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Evidence of Evolution

  • Patterns of migration were critical to Darwin when he was developing his theory.
  • Evolution is intimately linked with climate and geological forces.
slide15

Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Evidence of Evolution

Types of Adaptation

  • An adaptation is a trait shaped by natural selection that increases an organism’s reproductive success.
  • Fitness is a measure of the relative contribution an individual trait makes to the next generation.
slide16

Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Evidence of Evolution

Camouflage

  • Allows organisms to become almost invisible to predators

Leafy sea dragon

slide17

Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Evidence of Evolution

Mimicry

  • One species evolves to resemble another species.

California kingsnake

Western coral snake

slide18

Evolution

Chapter 15

15.2 Evidence of Evolution

Consequences of Adaptations

  • Some features of an organism might be consequences of other evolved characteristics.
  • They do not increase reproductive success.
  • Features likely arose as an unavoidable consequence of prior evolutionary change.
adaptation
Adaptation:
  • Organisms adapt to their environment in many different ways.
  • Mimicry is the process of natural selection shaping one species of organisms to look similar to another species. This increases an organisms fitness
  • Camouflage- morphological adaptations that allow organisms to blend into their surroundings. As a result, more of the camouflaged individuals survive and reproduce.
slide20

Viceroy Butterfly

Monarch Butterfly

conclusion question
Conclusion Question:
  • Hypothesize why the viceroy and monarch butterflies have bright colors that are highly visible.