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Evidence of Evolution Part 2. Evidence of Evolution. In addition to fossils, other evidence supports the theory of evolution Comparative anatomy: study of the structures of different organisms Remember, a theory in science means: The idea has been tested repeatedly and so far not disproven.

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evidence of evolution
Evidence of Evolution
  • In addition to fossils, other evidence supports the theory of evolution
    • Comparative anatomy: study of the structures of different organisms
  • Remember, a theory in science means:
    • The idea has been tested repeatedly and so far not disproven
homologous structures
Homologous Structures
  • Homologous structures: body parts similar in origin and structure
    • Homologous: from the ancient Greek meaning “to agree”
    • Homologous structures developed from the same body part in a common ancestor
    • Homologous structures are the result of divergent evolution
homologous structures4
Homologous Structures
  • From http://itc.gsw.edu/faculty/bcarter/histgeol/paleo2/homol1.htm and Monroe and Wicander, The Changing Earth, 3rd Edition
homologous structures5
Homologous Structures
  • Not necessarily similar in function
  • Homologous structures indicate organisms are related (have a common ancestor)
    • The greater the number of homologous structures, the more closely related
homologous structures6
Homologous Structures
  • Homologous structures the result of having the same structural genes
    • Structural genes control the presence of a particular part
homologous structures7
Homologous Structures
  • Regulatory genes control the shape and form of the structures made by structural genes
    • When the structure begins growth
    • Rate of growth
    • When the structure stops growing
homologous structures8
Homologous Structures
  • From http://itc.gsw.edu/faculty/bcarter/histgeol/paleo2/homol1b.htm
vestigial structures
Vestigial Structures
  • Suppose a structure becomes unnecessary—the genes making it don’t just disappear
  • Vestigial structures: structures an organism has that are like those another organism has, but which are not used
  • Vestigial structures indicate similarities and common ancestors in organisms because they are created by similar structural genes
vestigial structures10
Vestigial Structures
  • Examples of vestigial structures:
    • Flightless birds have wings
vestigial structures12
Vestigial Structures
  • Examples of vestigial structures:
    • Hind leg bones in whales
    • Human tail bone (coccyx)
    • Human appendix
    • Pig toes (the little ones)
vestigial structures16
Vestigial Structures
  • http://www.hsu.edu/content.aspx?id=5290