Photography Emily Fitts Abby Givens Roberts 4B “The art of process of producing images on a sensitized surface by the action of light”
Realism- “How things really look” • Reproduce the surface of reality with minimum distortion • Valued Aspects • Simplicity • Spontaneity • “rough look” • Too pretty= false August and Louis Lumiere – “Fathers of Modern Realism”
“La Sorti de l'UsineLumiere a Lyon”“Workers Leaving the LumiereFactory” (1894) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HI63PUXnVMw Style Exemplified: Realism
Classicism • Mainstream fiction films • Commercially produced to appeal to the masses- “Hollywood Styles” • Valued Aspects • strong in story • character depth • production value Edwin Porter
The Great Train Robbery (1903) Style Exemplified: Classicism • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bc7wWOmEGGY
Formalism • Manipulate images to express directors own personal view • Makes viewer aware that he/she is watching a movie George Melies
Le Voyage dans La Lune (1902)The Voyage to the Moon • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_FrdVdKlxUk Style Exemplified: Formalism
Vocabulary Classical Cinema- a term used to designate the style of mainstream fiction films produced in America from the midteens until the late 1960’s Shots- Images recorded continuously from the time the camera starts to the time it stops Close-up- A detailed view of a person or object Telephoto Lens- A lens that acts a telescope, magnifying the size of objects at a great distance Extreme Long Shot- A panoramic view of an exterior location photographed from a great distance Long Shot- A shot that includes an area within the image that roughly corresponds to the audience’s view of the area within the proscenium arch in the live theater Full Shot- A type of long shot that includes the human body in full Extreme Close-up- A minutely detailed view of an object or person Deep Focus Shot- A technique that permits all distance planes to remain clearly in focus
Vocabulary Establishing Shots- An extreme long or long shot offered at the beginning of a scene, providing the viewer with the context of the subsequent closer shots Epic- A film genre characterized by bold and sweeping themes,with the protagonist ideally representing a religious, national, or regional culture Three-shot- A medium shot, featuring three actors Over-the-shoulder Shot- A medium shot of two people, with the camera placed just behind the shoulder of one character, directed at the face of the opposite character Wide-angle Lens- A lens that permits the camera to photograph a wider area than a normal lens Angle- The camera’s angle of view relative to the subject being photographed
Vocabulary Low Angle Shot- A shot in which the subject is photographed from below Oblique Angle- A shot photographed by a tilted camera Setup- The positioning of the camera and lights for a specific shot Crane Shot- A shot taken from a device called a crane, which carries the camera Telephoto Lens- A lens that acts as a telescope, magnifying the size of objects at a great distance. A side effect is its tendency to flatten perspective Wide-angle Lens- A lens that permits the camera to photograph a wider area than a normal lens. A side effect is its tendency to exaggerate perspectiv Fast Stock- Film stock that’s highly sensitive to light and generally produces a grainy image Slow Stock- Film stocks that are relatively insensitive to light and produce crisp images and sharpness of detail
Vocabulary Eye Level Shots- The placement of a camera corresponding to the height of an observer on the scene Birds-eye View- A shot in which the camera photographs a scene from directly overhead High Angle Shot- A shot in which the subject is photographed from above
Shots • Amount of subject matter included within the frame Types: • Extreme Long Shot • Long Shot • Full Shot • Extreme Close-Up • Deep Focus Shot
Angles • Camera’s angle of view relative to the subject being photographed • Determined by where the camera is placed, not by moving the actual subject Types: • Bird’s-Eye View • High Angle • Eye-level Shot • Low Angle • Oblique Angle
Light and Dark • Lighting fluctuates based on the emotion and genre of the film, know as lighting key ex) Comedies- high key (bright and even illumination, few shadows) ex) Mysteries- low key (dispersed shadows, strategic pools of light) • Achieved by changing contrast, exposure, etc.
Color • Became commercially used in films in the 1960’s • Often used for symbolic purposes • Coolcolors= tranquility and aloofness • Warmcolors= aggressiveness and stimulation • Tends to be a subconscious element in film • Appeals to emotions • Usually more atmospheric than intellectual
Lenses, Filters, and Stocks Lenses: • Standard (non-distorted) range • Telephoto Lens (Long lens) • Close-up from extreme distances, often used for creating blurry images by focusing on further away objects (selective focusing) • Wide-Angle Lenses (Short Lens) • Deep focus shots, linear and spacial images, distances are exaggerated
Lenses, Filters, and Stocks Filters: • Placed in front of the camera lens • Alters shapes, colors, and lighting intensities • Distorts quality of light • Can be used for purely cosmetic purposes • ex. Refracting light to create a diamond-like sparkle
Lenses, Filters, and Stocks Stocks: • Two Basic Categories • Fast • Commonly associated with documentaries • Highly sensitive to light • Can register images with almost no illumination • Slow • Relatively insensitive to light • Requires 10 times more illumination than fast stocks
The Digital Revolution • Starting in the 1980’s, digital technology has replaced the celluloid technology majorly used in the motion picture industry for nearly a hundred years. • Film went from being a chemical and mechanical medium to becoming a combination of computer and television technologies • Makes movies easier and cheaper to produce
The Cinematographer • A cinema is a collaborative enterprise, involving artists, technicians, and businesspeople. • It is the cinematographer’s job to prepare the cameras for each scene, determining what lenses, lighting, and angle is best for a situation. • Directors and Cinematographers have to collaborate in order to make sure a film conveys the intended message or emotion.
CITATIONS The Godfather. Dir. Francis Ford Coppola. By Francis Ford Coppola and Mario Puzo. Prod. Albert S. Ruddy. Perf. Marlon Brando, Al Pacino, James Caan, Richard Castellano, Robert Duvall, Sterling Hayden, John Marley, Richard Conte, and Diane Keaton. Paramount Pictures, 1972. The Great Train Robbery. S.n., 1903. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. Dir. Chris Columbus. Prod. David Heyman. By Steven Kloves. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, Emma Watson, and Richard Harris. Warner Bros. Pictures, 2002. Inception. Warner Bros., 2010. La Sorti De L'usineLumiere A Lyon. Dir. AugusteLumiere and Louis Lumiere. 1894. Psycho. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. Shamley Productions, 1960. The Sound of Music. Films Inc., 1965. Star Wars. Twentieth-Century Fox Corp., 1977. A Trip to the Moon Le Voyage Dans La Lune. S.n., 1902.