Types of Gear Trains. Simple gear train Compound gear train Planetary gear train. Reverted Gear train. Concentric input & output shafts. Reverted Gear train. The driver and driven axes lies on the same line. These are used in speed reducers, clocks and machine tools.
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Concentric input & output shafts
The driver and driven axes lies on the same line. These are used in speed reducers, clocks and machine tools.
If R and N=Pitch circle radius
& number of teeth of the gear
RA + RB = RC + RD
and NA + NB = NC + ND
Epicyclic means one gear revolving upon and around another. The design involves planet and sun gears as one orbits the other like a planet around the sun. Here is a picture of a typical gear box.
This design can produce large gear ratios in a small space and are used on a wide range of applications from marine gearboxes to electric screw drivers.
A small gear at the center called the sun, several medium sized gears called the planets and a large external gear called the ring gear.
Planetary gear trains have several advantages. They have higher gear ratios. They are popular for automatic transmissions in automobiles. They are also used in bicycles for controlling power of pedaling automatically or manually. They are also used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
It is the system of epicyclic gears in which at least one wheel axis itself revolves around another fixed axis.
The diagram shows a gear B on the end of an arm. Gear B meshes with gear C and revolves around it when the arm is rotated. B is called the planet gear and C the sun.
Observe point p and you will see that gear B also revolves once on its own axis. Any object orbiting around a center must rotate once. Now consider that B is free to rotate on its shaft and meshes with C.
Suppose the arm is held stationary and gear C is rotated once. B spins about its own center and the number of revolutions it makes is the ratio:
B will rotate by this number for every complete revolution of C.
Now consider the sun gear C is restricted to rotate and the arm A is revolved once. Gear B will revolve
because of the orbit. It is this extra rotation that causes confusion. One way to get round this is to imagine that the whole system is revolved once.
Then identify the gear that is fixed and revolve it back one revolution. Work out the revolutions of the other gears and add them up. The following tabular method makes it easy.
Suppose gear C is fixed and the arm A makes one revolution. Determine how many revolutions the planet gear B makes.
Step 1: revolve all elements once about the center.
Step 2: identify that C should be fixed and rotate it backwards one revolution keeping the arm fixed as it should only do one revolution in total. Work out the revolutions of B.
Step 3: add them up and we find the total revolutions of C is zero and for the arm is 1.
A simple epicyclic gear has a fixed sun gear with 100 teeth and a planet gear with 50 teeth. If the arm is revolved once, how many times does the planet gear revolve?
Many machines use gears. A very good example is a bicycle which has gears that make it easier to cycle, especially up hills. Bicycles normally have a large gear wheel which has a pedal attached and a selection of gear wheels of different sizes, on the back wheel. When the pedal is revolved the chain pulls round the gear wheels at the back.
The reason bicycles are easier to cycle up a hill when the gears are changed is due to what is called Gear Ratio (velocity ratio). Gear ratio can be worked out in the form of numbers and examples are shown. Basically, the ratio is determined by the number of teeth on each gear wheel, the chain is ignored and does not enter the equation.
But WHAT does this mean? It means that
the DRIVEN gear makes TWO rotations
for every ONE rotation of the Driving Gear.
What does this mean? For every 3
rotations of the driving gear, the driven
gear makes one rotation.
What does this mean? For every 4 rotations
of the driving gear, the driven gear makes 1
In the example shown, the DRIVER gear is larger than the DRIVEN gear. The general rule is - large to small gear means 'multiply' the velocity ratio by the rpm of the first gear. Divide 60 teeth by 30 teeth to find the velocity ratio(1:2). Multiply this number (2) by the rpm (120). This gives an answer of 240rpm
In the example shown, the DRIVER gear is smaller than the DRIVEN gear. The general rule is - small to large gear means 'divide' the velocity ratio(3:1) by the rpm of the first gear. Divide 75 teeth by 25 teeth to find the velocity ratio. divide the 60rpm by the velocity ration (3). The answer is 20rpm.
If A revolves at 100 revs/min what is B ?
(Remember small gear to large gear decreases revs)
When faced with three gears the question can be broken down into two parts. First work on Gears A and B. When this has been solved work on gears B and C.
The diagram shows a gear train composed of three gears. Gear A revolves at 60 revs/min in a clockwise direction.
What is the output in revolutions per minute at Gear C?
In what direction does Gear C revolve ?
This means that for every THREE revolutions of GEAR A, Gear B travels once.
Since we are going from a SMALLER gear to a LARGER gear we DIVIDE the
Now find the gear ratio for B & C.
This means for every ONE rotation
of gear B, gear C makes SIX rotations.
You can also multiply the two gear ratios together to get the TOTAL gear
ratio. In the above figure we see that gear C will make TWO rotations for
every one rotation of gear A. And since gear C is smaller than gear A we
Below is a question regarding 'compound gears'. Gears C and B represent a compound gear as they appear 'fixed' together. When drawn with a compass they have the same centre. Two gears 'fixed' together in this way rotate together and at the same RPM. When answering a question like this split it into two parts. Treat gears A and B as one question ANDC and D as the second part.
What is the output in revs/min at D and what is the direction of rotation if Gear A rotates in a clockwise direction at 30 revs/min?
Considering that Gear B is smaller than Gear A we can conclude that the
RPMs for gear B is 30*3 = 90 rev/min
Since Gear B is at 90rev/min and has the SAME rotational speed as gear C
Multiply by 4 to get Gear D’s speed. Thus, Gear D moves at 90*4 = 360 rev/min
Since Gear A moves at 30rpms and Gear D is SMALLER. We multiply by 12. 30*12 = 360 rev/min
If Gear A turns CCW, then gear B
turns CW along with gear C as they are a compound gear. Therefore, Gear D rotates CCW.
The gear ratio of this gear box is 75 to 1
That means the last axle rotates 75 times slower than
the first axle. It also means the last axle has 75 times
the torque as the first axle.
Have one person turn
And have another person
try to hold on to this wheel.
on something. This is known as mechanical advantage.
BUT, it comes at a price. Do you know what it is?