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Parts and usage

Parts and usage

Mother Board

What is motherboard
What is MotherBoard

Motherboard is the most important component in any personal computer. It contains almost every important elements of the computer. Sometimes instead of the calling it “motherboard”, IBM refers to is as “system Board” or “ Planner Board” , some other manufacturer refer to this as the “ Logic Board”. The motherboard is the main circuit board inside the PC which holds the processor, memory and expansion slots and connects directly or indirectly to every part of the PC. It’s made up of a chipset(known as the “glue logic”), some code in ROM and the various interconnections or buses.

Motherboard components
Motherboard Components

  • • Expansion slots

  • • CPU(Main Processor)

  • • Coprocessor

  • • Memory

  • • BIOS and

  • • Support circuits of chipset for interrupt, DMA etc.

Expansion slots
Expansion Slots

What is expansion slot?

The expansion slots are long thin connectors on the motherboard, near the backside of the computer. Various expansion cards are connected to the motherboards through data, address and control lines/buses on these slots. One can connect various expansion cards such as display card, hard drive controller, sound card, network card, modem card etc. on these slots. When an adapter card is connected to the expansion slot, it is actually connected to the data, address and control bus on the motherboard.

The cpu

The main component of any motherboard is the main processor chip which controls all the inner functions of the system. The CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT(CPU) functions as the brain of every PC. It is usually inserted into the socket and is not soldered onto the motherboard as many other chips are normally done, this makes its replacement, in case of any problem, very easy.

Some processors cpus
Some Processors (CPUs)

Pentium Chip

PowerPC Chip

Chip Fan

Cpu socket
CPU Socket

PGA – Pin Grid Array ; Protruding Pins

LGA – Land Grid Array ; Balls Grid Array

Cpu sockets
CPU Sockets

Pin Grid Array

Land Grid Array


Memory is the place where computer stores the program and data that help the program in carrying out its operations.

Memory is used by computers to run its operating system in any application that you start and also responsible in loading a system.

Types of memory
Types of Memory

  • RAM memory

  • ROM memory

    RAM - random access memory.

    ROM - Read Only Memory

Mother board

is a read/write type of memory which is used by the processor to keep program, data and intermediate results during program executions. It is VOLATILE type of memory, which lose its content when the power supply is switched off.

Mother board

The physical installation of RAM memory on the motherboard can take place in various ways.

  • DIP(dual In-line Pin) memory chips were used on initial motherboards.

  • Later SIMM ( single inline memory modules) became common.

  • Currently DIMM(dual inline memory modules) are most common memory module.

Ram dip



Read only memory rom
Read Only Memory(ROM)

ROM or Read Only Memory, as its name suggest is a read only type of memory it cannot be written. Data is written into it by the manufacturer.

  • On major advantage with the ROM is, ROM is Non-Volatile type of memory, meaning it does not lose its content when the power supply to it is switched off.

  • A motherboard normally contains one or more of these ROM chips.

Ram and there types
RAM and there types

SIMMS:72-pin SIMM (4-1/4”)

30-pin SIM (3-1/2”)


Pins: 168 – pin,184 – pin, 240 – pin

DDR1 –2.4 or 2.5 v

DDR2 – 1.8 V

DDR3 – 1.5 V

Mother board

  • BIOS is an abbreviation if Basic Input Output System.

  • A chip w/c directs the I/O operations of all the devices in or attached to the system

  • All Peripherals are instructed by BIOS

  • Holds the configuration, loading the operating system, detects also the devices, and monitors the PC temperature.

  • Communication between the processor and memory

Primary functions
Primary functions

  • Prepares the machine so other software programs stored on various media (such as hard drives, floppies, and CD’s) can load, execute, and assume control of the computer.

Cmos complementary metal oxide semiconductor memory
CMOS(Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) Memory

  • Refers to the memory on a personal computer containing BIOS settings and sometimes the code used to initialize the computer and load the O.S.

  • The memory and real time clock are generally proceed by a CR2032 lithium coin cell.

  • These cells last for two to ten years, depending on the type of the BIOS

Cmos battery
CMOS Battery

  • Contains the information about the system configuration (hard disk types, date and time, and the order in w/c the computer will look for bootable disk). The CMOS battery allows the CMOS to pressure these settings.

  • Preserves the settings of the BIOS


  • Is a group of integrated circuits, or chips, that are designed to work together, and are usually marketed as a single product.

    There are two Chipset in MOBO:

  • Northbridge Chipset

  • Southbridge Chipset

North bridge chipset
North Bridge Chipset

  • Also known as the I/O controller Hub (ICH)

  • Is the chip that controls all of the computers I/O functions, such as USB , audio, serial, the system BIOS , the ISA bus, and the IDE channels.

South bridge chipset
South Bridge Chipset

  • Also known as “Memory Controller hub”.

  • Typically handles communications between the CPU, RAM, AGP.

  • Always closer to CPU w/ heat sink

  • also one of the responsible in processing data.

Sata header
SATA Header

  • Computer bus storage-interface for connection host bus adapters to mass storage devices.

  • SATA Data cable

  • High speed data transfer

  • A wire replacement for the older AT attachment standard (ATA)

  • SATA (Serial advance technology attachment)

Mother board

Data Cable

Ide header
IDE header

  • More commonly known as ATA and is a standard interface for IBM compatible hard drives.

    • Primary IDE header – Goes to hard disk

    • Secondary IDE header – Goes to CD-ROM

Ide header1
IDE header

Data Cable

24 pin atx power connector
24 PIN ATX Power Connector

  • Will give a power supply of the whole system board

  • 24/20 PIN depends on the system board

24 pin atx power connector1
24 PIN ATX Power Connector

24 PIN ATX Connector

Pin Out

4 pins 12v auxiliary connector
4 Pins 12v Auxiliary Connector

  • This adds a additional 12v to your processor

Post speaker
Post Speaker


  • This produce audible beep indicating an error, warning, or system ok.

Cd in header
CD – in Header

  • Connection where the CD drive is plugged in

  • Also transfer power to the CD drive such as the audit of the CD ROM

  • Allows the computer to recognized the drive in order to operate correctly

Audio jack
Audio Jack

  • Jack for microphone, headset, speaker

Ethernet port
Ethernet Port

  • Use to connect Ethernet patch cable

Chassis fan power header
Chassis FAN Power Header

  • For chassis fan

Cmos socket connector
CMOS Socket Connector

  • This houses the CMOS battery

Floppy disk header
Floppy Disk Header

  • 34 PINS, data cable from floppy disk drive