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Digital Image Processing – Fall 2010 Prof. Dmitry Goldgof. Digital Video Processing. Matthew Shreve Computer Science and Engineering University of South Florida.  [email protected] Outline. Basics of Video Digital Video MPEG Summary. Basics of Video.

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Digital video processing l.jpg

Digital Image Processing – Fall 2010 Prof. Dmitry Goldgof

Digital Video Processing

Matthew Shreve

Computer Science and Engineering

University of South Florida

[email protected]

Outline l.jpg

  • Basics of Video

  • Digital Video

  • MPEG

  • Summary

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Basics of Video

Static scene capture  Image

Bring in motion  Video

  • Image sequence: A 3-D signal

    • 2 spatial dimensions & 1 time dimension

    • Continuous I (x, y, t) discrete I (m, n, tk)

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Video Camera

  • Frame-by-frame capturing

  • CCD sensors (Charge-Coupled Devices)

    • 2-D array of solid-state sensors

    • Each sensor corresponds to a pixel

    • Stored in a buffer and sequentially read out

    • Widely used

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Progressive vs. Interlaced Videos

  • Progressive

    • Every pixel on the screen is refreshed in order (monitors) or simultaneously (films)

  • Interlaced

    • Refreshed twice every frame; the little gun at the back of your CRT shoots all the correct phosphors on the even numbered rows of pixels first and then odd numbered rows

    • NTSC frame-rate of 29.97 means the screen is redrawn 59.94 times a second

    • In other words, 59.94 half-frames per second or 59.94 fields per second

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Progressive vs. Interlaced Videos

  • How interlaced video could cause problems

    • Suppose you resize a 720 x 480 interlaced video to 576 x 384 (20% reduction)

    • How does resizing work?

      • takes a sample of the pixels from the original source and blends them together to create the new pixels

    • In case of interlaced video, you might end of blending scan lines of two completely different images!

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Progressive vs. Interlaced Videos

Observe distinct scan lines

Image in full 720 x 480 resolution

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Progressive vs. Interlaced Videos

Image after being resized to 576x384

Some scan lines blended together!

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Why Digital?

  • “Exactness”

    • Exact reproduction without degradation

    • Accurate duplication of processing result

  • Convenient & powerful computer-aided processing

    • Can perform rather sophisticated processing through hardware or software

  • Easy storage and transmission

    • 1 DVD can store a three-hour movie !!!

    • Transmission of high quality video through network in reasonable time

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Digital Video Coding

  • The basic idea is to remove redundancy in video and encode it

  • Perceptual redundancy

    • The Human Visual System is less sensitive to color and high frequencies

  • Spatial redundancy

    • Pixels in a neighborhood have close luminance levels

      • Low frequency

  • How about temporal redundancy?

    • Differences between subsequent frames can be small. Shouldn’t we exploit this?

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Hybrid Video Coding

  • “Hybrid” ~ combination of Spatial, Perceptual, & Temporal redundancy removal

  • Issues to be handled

    • Not all regions are easily inferable from previous frame

      • Occlusion ~ solved by backward prediction using future frames as reference

      • The decision of whether to use prediction or not is made adaptively

    • Drifting and error propagation

      • Solved by encoding reference regions or frames at constant intervals of time

    • Random access

      • Solved by encoding frame without prediction at constant intervals of time

    • Bit allocation

      • according to statistics

      • constant and variable bit-rate requirement

MPEG combines all of these features !!!

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  • MPEG – Moving Pictures Experts Group

    • Coding of moving pictures and associated audio

  • Picture part

    • Can achieve compression ratio of about 50:1 through storing only the difference between successive frames

    • Even higher compression ratios possible

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Bit Rate

  • Defined in two ways

    • bits per second (all inter-frame compression algorithms)

    • bits per frame (most intra-frame compression algorithms except DV and MJPEG)

  • What does this mean?

    • If you encode something in MPEG, specify it to be 1.5 Mbps; it doesn’t matter what the frame-rate is, it takes the same amount of space  lower frame-rate will look sharper but less smooth

    • If you do the same with a codec like Huffyuv or Intel Indeo, you will get the same image quality through all of them, but the smoothness and file sizes will change as frame-rate changes

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MPEG-1 Compression Aspects

  • Lossless and Lossy compression are both used for a high compression rate

  • Down-sampled chrominance

    • Perceptual redundancy

  • Intra-frame compression

    • Spatial redundancy

    • Correlation/compression within a frame

    • Based on “baseline” JPEG compression standard

  • Inter-frame compression

    • Temporal redundancy

    • Correlation/compression between like frames

  • Audio compression

    • Three different layers (MP3)

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Perceptual Redundancy

  • Here is an image represented with 8-bits per pixel

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Perceptual Redundancy

  • The same image at 7-bits per pixel

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Perceptual Redundancy

  • At 6-bits per pixel

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Perceptual Redundancy

  • At 5-bits per pixel

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Perceptual Redundancy

  • At 4-bits per pixel

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Perceptual Redundancy

  • It is clear that we don’t all these bits!

    • Our previous example illustrated the eye’s sensitivity to luminance

  • We can build a perceptual model

    • Give more importance to what is perceivable to the Human Visual System

      • Usually this is a function of the spatial frequency

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Fundamentals of JPEG




Entropy coder

Compressed image data



Entropy decoder


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Fundamentals of JPEG

  • JPEG works on 8×8 blocks

  • Extract 8×8 block of pixels

  • Convert to DCT domain

  • Quantize each coefficient

    • Different stepsize for each coefficient

      • Based on sensitivity of human visual system

  • Order coefficients in zig-zag order

    • Similar frequencies are grouped together

  • Run-length encode the quantized values and then use Huffman coding on what is left

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Random Access and Inter-frame Compression

Temporal Redundancy

  • Only perform repeated encoding of the parts of a picture frame that are rapidly changing

  • Do not repeatedly encode background elements and still elements

  • Random access capability

    • Prediction that does not depend upon the user accessing the first frame (skipping through movie scenes, arbitrary point pick-up)

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Sample (2D) Motion Field

Anchor Frame

Target Frame

Motion Field

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2-D Motion Corresponding to Camera Motion

Camera zoom

Camera rotation around Z-axis (roll)

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General Considerationsfor Motion Estimation

  • Two categories of approaches:

    • Feature based (more often used in object tracking, 3D reconstruction from 2D)

    • Intensity based (based on constant intensity assumption) (more often used for motion compensated prediction, required in video coding, frame interpolation)

  • Three important questions

    • How to represent the motion field?

    • What criteria to use to estimate motion parameters?

    • How to search motion parameters?

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Motion Representation


One MV at each pixel, with some smoothness constraint between adjacent MVs.


Entire motion field is represented by a few global parameters


Entire frame is divided into blocks, and motion in each block is characterized by a few parameters.

Also mesh-based

(flow of corners, approximated inside)


Entire frame is divided into regions, each region corresponding to an object or sub-object with consistent motion, represented by a few parameters.

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target frame

anchor frame

Predicted target frame

Motion field

Half-pel Exhaustive Block Matching Algorithm (EBMA)

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Predicted target frame

Three-level Hierarchical Block Matching Algorithm

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mesh-based method

EBMA vs. Mesh-based Motion Estimation

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Motion Compensated Prediction

  • Divide current frame, i, into disjoint 16×16 macroblocks

  • Search a window in previous frame, i-1, for closest match

  • Calculate the prediction error

  • For each of the four 8×8 blocks in the macroblock, perform DCT-based coding

  • Transmit motion vector + entropy coded prediction error (lossy coding)

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MPEG-1 Video Coding

  • Most MPEG1 implementations use a large number of I frames to ensure fast access

    • Somewhat low compression ratio by itself

  • For predictive coding, P frames depend on only a small number of past frames

    • Using less past frames reduces the propagation error

  • To further enhance compression in an MPEG-1 file, introduce a third frame called the “B” frame  bi-directional frame

    • B frames are encoded using predictive coding of only two other frames: a past frame and a future frame

  • By looking at both the past and the future, helps reduce prediction error due to rapid changes from frame to frame (i.e. a fight scene or fast-action scene)

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Predictive coding hierarchy:I, P and B frames

  • I frames (black) do not depend on any other frame and are encoded separately

    • Called “Anchor frame”

  • P frames (red) depend on the last P frame or I frame (whichever is closer)

    • Also called “Anchor frame”

  • B frames (blue) depend on two frames: the closest past P or I frame, and the closest future P or I frame

    • B frames are NOT used to predict other B frames, only P frames and I frames are used for predicting other frames

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MPEG-1 Temporal Order of Compression

  • I frames are generated and compressed first

    • Have no frame dependence

  • P frames are generated and compressed second

    • Only depend upon the past I frame values

  • B frames are generated and compressed last

    • Depend on surrounding frames

    • Forward prediction needed

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Adaptive Predictive Coding inMPEG-1

  • Coding each block in P-frame

    • Predictive block using previous I/P frame as reference

    • Intra-block ~ encode without prediction

      • use this if prediction costs more bits than non-prediction

      • good for occluded area

      • can also avoid error propagation

  • Coding each block in B-frame

    • Intra-block ~ encode without prediction

    • Predictive block

      • use previous I/P frame as reference (forward prediction)

      • or use future I/P frame as reference (backward prediction)

      • or use both for prediction

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MPEG Library

  • The MPEG Library is a C library for decoding MPEG-1 video streams and dithering them to a variety of color schemes.

  • Most of the code in the library comes directly from an old version of the Berkeley MPEG player (mpeg_play)

  • The Library can be downloaded from

  • It works good on all modern Unix and Unix-like platforms with an ANSI C compiler. I have tested it on “grad”.

    NOTE - This is not the best library available. But it works good for MPEG-1 and it is fairly easy to use. If you are inquisitive, you should check MPEG Software Simulation Groupat you can find a free MPEG-2 video coder/decoder.

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MPEGe Library

  • The MPEGe(ncoding) Library is designed to allow you to create MPEG movies from your application

  • The library can be downloaded from the files section of

  • The encoder library uses the Berkeley MPEG encoder engine, which handles all the complexities of MPEG streams

  • As was the case with the decoder, this library can write only one MPEG movie at a time

  • The library works good with most of the common image formats

    • To keep things simple, we will stick to PPM

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MPEGe Library Functions

  • The library consists of 3 simple functions

    • MPEGe_open for initializing the encoder.

    • MPEGe_image called each time you want to add a frame to the sequence. The format of the image pointed to by image is that used by the SDSC Image library

      • SDSC is a powerful library which will allow you to read/write 32 different image types and also contains functions to manipulate them. The source code as well as pre-compiled binaries can be downloaded at

    • MPEGe_close called to end the MPEG sequence. This function will reset the library to a sane state and create the MPEG end sequences and close the output file

  • Note: All functions return non NULL (i.e. TRUE) on success and Zero (or FALSE) on failure.

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Usage Details

  • You are not required to write code using the libraries to decode and encode MPEG streams

  • Copy the binary executables from



  • Usage

    • To read frames from an MPEG movie (say test.mpg) and store them in a directory extractframes (relative to your current working directory) with the prefix testframe (to the filename)

      • readframes test.mpg extractframes/testframe

        This will decode all the frames of test.mpg into the directory extractframes with the filenames testframe0.ppm, testframe1.ppm …

    • To encode,

      • encodeframes 0 60 extractframes/testframe testresult.mpg

        This will encode images testframe0.ppm to testframe60.ppm from the directory extractframes into testresult.mpg

  • In order to convert between PPM and PGM formats, copy the script from