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CHORDATA. By: Caroline Chandler, Meredith Wehrle , and Meredith Dickey. Facts about Phylum Chordata. Bilateral symmetry Three germ layers- endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm Well developed coelom Triploblastic Specialized tissues compose unique organs Urochordata- sessile

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chordata

CHORDATA

By: Caroline Chandler, Meredith Wehrle, and Meredith Dickey

facts about phylum chordata
Facts about Phylum Chordata
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Three germ layers- endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm
  • Well developed coelom
  • Triploblastic
  • Specialized tissues compose unique organs
  • Urochordata- sessile
  • Cephalochordate and Vertebrates are motile- body designed for movement with ease
  • Type of movement depends on species-jump, swim, walk, etc.
development
Development
  • Body development in the Phylum Chordata varies greatly
  • Vertebrata:

-some embryo develop in egg

-others develop in mothers uterus and are born live

-many specialized structures and organs

  • Urochordata:

-produce free swimming larvae with notochord, dorsal tubular nervous system, and gill slits

-larval stage ends when organism finds a rock suitable for life

-adults have neither a notochord or nervous system

  • Cephalochordata:

-have dorsal nerve cord, notochord, and gill slits

-maintain throughout life

reproduction and life cycles
Reproduction and life cycles
  • Sexual reproduction
  • Several urochordata species reproduce asexually
  • Life cycles vary
slide5

3 Subphyla:

-Urochordata -Cephalochordata

-Vertebrata

urochordata
Urochordata
  • marine
  • sessile
  • feed by filtering food particles from seawater taken in through one opening, or siphon, and squirted out the other
  • disperse themselves with free-swimming larvae
cephalochordata
Cephalochordata
  • Body laterally compressed and transparent (fish like)
  • All four chordate characteristics persist throughout lifetime
  • Motile
phylogenic tree
Phylogenic Tree…

Chordata

Urochordata

Vertebrata

Cephalochordata

Agnatha

Chondrichthyes

Osteichthyes

Amphibian

Reptilia

Aves

Mammalia

agnatha
Agnatha
  • Most primitive vertebrates
  • Jawless fish with cartilaginous skeleton
  • Also characterized by lack of paired fins
  • Notochord persists throughout life
  • Most are parasitic

Hagfish

Lamprey

chondricthyes
Chondricthyes
  • “Chondra”=cartilage; “icthyes”=fish
  • Cartilaginous skeleton with jaw
  • Notochord becomes vertebrae in adults
  • Most fertilization internal

Manta rays

Shark

osteichthyes
Osteichthyes
  • “Oste”=bone; “ichthyes”=fish
  • Bony skeleton and jaw
  • Most fertilization is external
  • Notochord becomes spinal chord
  • Most have swim bladder

Coelacanth

lobe-finned fish

Carp-ray finned fish

amphibians
Amphibians
  • First vertebrates to move to land
  • Amphibian means “double life”- refers to metamorphosis and the fact that larvae live in water and adults live on land
  • Evolved from lobe-finned fish

Salamander

Toad

Frog

did you know
Did you know…

…one of the differences between toads and frogs is that toads lay their eggs in long, tube-like protective membranes, while frogs lay theirs in clusters?

Toads also have more dry, “warty” skin, while frogs have more smooth and slimy skin

Contrary to popular belief, toads do NOT give you warts…

reptilia
Reptilia
  • Evolved from amphibians
  • Adapted to live in hot, dry places
  • Internal fertilization
  • First class to have amniotic egg
  • Carnivores, developed strong teeth and claws

Structure of the amniotic egg

slide16
Aves
  • Adapted for flight
  • Thought to be evolved from dinosaurs
  • Feathers and wings
  • Hollow bones make birds lighter for flight
  • Have a beak instead of a jaw
  • Internal testes- external testes would cause balance problems
  • Amniotic egg
aves ancestors
Aves Ancestors…
  • Birds are thought to have evolved from flying dinosaurs…

Until 1991, everyone thought birds evolved from the Archaeopteryx. Then…

…a paleontologist found fossils of a flying dinosaur believed to be even older. It was named Protoavis

Due to inconsistencies in information, the Archaeopteryx is still viewed as the ancestor of birds

mammalia
Mammalia
  • Evolved from reptiles
  • Almost all give birth to live young
  • Have fur/hair and subcutaneous (under-the-skin) fat for insulation
  • Well suited for cold climates
  • 3 groups:

-Monotremes: lay eggs, most primitive

-Marsupials: give birth to young very early in development and complete development in mother’s pouch

-Placentals: complete development in uterus

at some point all chordate have
At some point, all chordate have…
  • Notochord- a longitudinal, flexible rod formed from the dorsal mesoderm and located between the gut and the nerve cord in all chordate embryos
  • Hollow dorsal nerve cord- dorsal to notochord, late become brain and spinal cord
  • Pharyngeal gill slits- used for feeding; slits lined with beating cilia pull in water and filter it for food
  • Postanal tail-an extension beyond the anus of the notochord or backbone and of the body-wall musculature, containing no internal organs
works cited
Works cited
  • Pictures:
  • “The Vertebrates” http://www.earthlife.net/inverts/images/others/vertebrates.jpg
  • Cephalochordata http://www.talkdesign.org/faqs/evimmune/ei_animal004.jpg
  • Urochordata http://www.faunanet.gov.au/wos/images/groups/g16.jpg
  • Hagfish http://grad.bio.uci.edu/ecoevo/aclark/hagfishpic.jpg
  • Lamprey http://people.cornellcollege.edu/b-hess/geo105/images/lamprey.jpg
  • Shark http://michaelscomments.files.wordpress.com/2007/10/shark.jpg
  • Manta rays http://www.aquarticles.com/images/China4b/p47a%20Manta%20rays.jpg
  • Carp http://pond.dnr.cornell.edu/nyfish/Cyprinidae/common_carp.jpg
  • Coelacanth http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Zoology/Biologicaldiverstity/AnimalsIII/coelacanth.jpg
  • Toad http://www.glaucus.org.uk/toad9077-RH.jpg
  • Frog http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/09/images/070928-frog-picture_big.jpg
  • Salamander http://www.argo217.k12.il.us/departs/English/blettiere/451_salamander.jpg
  • Amniotic egg http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T013908A.gif
  • Dinosaur http://www.tapirback.com/tapirgal/gifts/friends/dinosaurs/dinosaur-plastic-velociraptor-f668.jpg
  • Bird http://www.tapirback.com/tapirgal/gifts/friends/dinosaurs/dinosaur-plastic-velociraptor-f668.jpg
  • Platypus http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=94548&rendTypeId=4
  • Kangaroo with joey http://www.northrup.org/photos/crap/Animals/low/kangaroo-joey.jpg
  • Cat with kittens http://www.charitywebcam.co.uk/rspca/images/uploads/Julieandkittens.jpg
  • Frog life cycle http://dj003.k12.sd.us/images/frog%20dissection/frog_life_cycle.gif
  • Chicken egg http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/863/20492236.JPG
  • Lancelet faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/.../deuterostomes.htm
  • Urochodate http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/a_urochordate.gif