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Chordata. Intro, Urochordata and Cephalochordata. Victor Pontis & Kaushik Sahoo AP Bio Period 3 Rall. http://www.aboututila.com/PhotoGallery/DeepBlue/Photos/Bluebell-Tunicate-01.jpg. Intro to Chordata. http://myphlip.pearsoncmg.com/altcc/student/ab2page.cfm?vbcid=10440&vid=19992.

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chordata

Chordata

Intro, Urochordata and Cephalochordata

Victor Pontis & Kaushik Sahoo

AP Bio Period 3

Rall

http://www.aboututila.com/PhotoGallery/DeepBlue/Photos/Bluebell-Tunicate-01.jpg

intro to chordata
Intro to Chordata

http://myphlip.pearsoncmg.com/altcc/student/ab2page.cfm?vbcid=10440&vid=19992

characteristics of chordata
Characteristics of Chordata

Deutorosomes, Bilaterally Symmetrical

  • Four key characteristics:
    • Notochord - skeletal
    • Dorsal, hollow nerve cord - CNS
    • Pharyngeal slits or clefts – “gills”
    • Muscular, post-anal tail

http://myphlip.pearsoncmg.com/altcc/student/ab2page.cfm?vbcid=10440&vid=19992

tunicates overview
Nicknamed "Sea Squirts"

Has body cavity that holds the atrium

Bilaterally Symmetrical

Nervous system degenerates after larval stage. Some cells detect light and gravity allowing it to settle on a substrate. Limited nervous system in adult stage. 

Tunicates Overview

Tunicates are members of the subphylum Urochordata

http://www.marinemedicaltreasures.com/images/tunicates.jpg

digestive excretory and circulatory systems
Incurrent siphon sucks water

Atrium filters food

Water and waste excreted through excurrent siphon

Food travels from esophagus to stomach

Siphons also function as circulatory system

Digestive, Excretory, and Circulatory Systems

http://myphlip.pearsoncmg.com/altcc/student/ab2page.cfm?vbcid=10440&vid=19992

skeletal type sensory structures
Larval stage has notochord and dorsal, hollow nerve chord

In adult form the skeleton is lost and resorbed

Light and gravity sensing cells

Skeletal Type/Sensory Structures
reproduction
Hermaphrodite = both male/female

Settles on substrate

Light and gravity cues

Chordate characteristics disappear as adult

Reproduction
sample example organisms
Sample Example Organisms

Class: AscidiaceaOrder: PleurogonaSuborder: StolidobranchiaFamily: PyuridaeGenus: HalocynthiaSpecies: H. roretzi

Sea Pineapple

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Halocynthia_roretzi-Sea_pineapples_at_Tsukiji_Market-01.jpg

http://www.biodiversity911.org/biodiversity_basics/why_important/images/red_sea_tunicates.jpg

lancelets cephalochordata
Lancelets/Cephalochordata
  • In the lavaral form lancelets develop a notochord, a dorsal, hollow nerve cord, numerous pharyngeal slits, and a post-anal tail.
  • Body Cavity is present.
  • Bilateral Symmetry
  • Feed on plankton.
  • Adult lancelets up to 5 cm long
  • Frequently swim to new locations
  • Lanclets- globally rare

http://myphlip.pearsoncmg.com/altcc/student/ab2page.cfm?vbcid=10440&vid=19992

nervous system
Nervous System
  • Lancelets develop a hollow nerve cord
  • Have slightly swollen tip on the anterior end of their dorsal nerve cord
  • However, no true brain

http://myphlip.pearsoncmg.com/altcc/student/ab2page.cfm?vbcid=10440&vid=19992

circulatory system
Circulatory System
  • Water enters mouth and passes through the pharyngeal slits into the atrium
  • The atrium is a chamber that vents to the outside by way of the atriopore
  • No heart and blood cells
digestive system excretory system
Digestive System/Excretory System
  • Mucous net around pharyngeal slits remove small food particles from seawater
  • Ciliary pumping draws these particles into the mouth
  • Trapped food enters the intestine
  • Food finally leaves through anus
locomotion musculature15
Locomotion/Musculature
  • Swimming mechanism of fishes
  • Coordinated contraction of muscles
  • Serially arranged segmental muscles 
    • Muscle segments develop from blocks of mesoderm-Somites
  • Undulatory (wavelike) movements
skeletal type sensory structures16
Skeletal Type/Sensory Structures
  • As larvae develop a dorsal, hollow nerve cord and notochord
  • Somites found along each side of notochord
  • Tentacles by mouth act as sensory devices, and as a water filter
  • No eyes, or complex sensory structures
reproduction17
Reproduction
  • Sexual Reproduction
  • Lanclets have separate sexes - Male & Female
  • Eggs and Sperm released into water
  • Fertilized eggs develop into larvae
gas exchange18
Gas Exchange
  • Diffusion across external body surface
  • Pharynx and Pharyngeal slits play a minor role in gas exchange
lancelets are globally rare but can reach large densities 5000 m 2 in areas like tampa bay

http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/labs/lance.jpg

Lancelets are globally rare, but can reach large densities (5000/m2) in areas like Tampa Bay

http://cfs15.tistory.com/image/32/tistory/2009/02/01/04/13/4984a2d26fa8e

quiz time
QUIZ TIME!

1) Which of following outline the notochord, and

    are prevalent in all chordate embryos?

A. Atriums

B. Somites

C. Siphons

D. Tunics

quiz time21
QUIZ TIME!

1) Which of following outline the notochord, and

    are prevalent in all chordate embryos?

A. Atriums

B. Somites

C. Siphons

D. Tunics

quiz time22
QUIZ TIME!

2) Mature tunicates are able to move by 

A. their muscles.

B. clinging to other animals as they pass by.

C. teleportaion. 

D. jet propulsion.

quiz time23
QUIZ TIME!

2) Mature tunicates are able to move by 

A. their muscles.

B. clinging to other animals as they pass by.

C. teleportaion. 

D. jet propulsion

quiz time24
QUIZ TIME!

3. Chordates are

A. bilaterally symmetrical.

B. radially symmetrical.

C. not symmetrical at all.

D. aesthetically symmetrical. 

quiz time25
QUIZ TIME!

3. Chordates are

A. bilaterally symmetrical.

B. radially symmetrical.

C. not symmetrical at all.  

D. aesthetically symmetrical. 

quiz time26
QUIZ TIME!

4. Tunicates _____ and Lancelets _____.

A. are sexual; are asexual

B. are asexual; are sexual

C. have separate sexes; are hermaphrodites

D. are hermaphrodites; have separate sexes

quiz time27
QUIZ TIME!

4. Tunicates _____ and Lancelets _____.

A. are sexual; are asexual

B. are asexual; are sexual

C. have separate sexes; are hermaphrodites

D. are hermaphrodites; have separate sexes