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s. Cultural Geography. What is. s. ?. The term globalisation is contested, a general definition is…. An increase in the flow of goods , services , people , capital across national borders in order to create a more integrated and interdependent world economy. .

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Cultural Geography


What is



The term globalisation is contested, a general definition is…

An increase in the flow of goods, services, people, capital across national borders in order to create a more integrated and interdependent world economy.

Basically the World is shrinking.

Cultural Geography



Cultural Geography



What factors have lead to globalisation?

Cultural Geography


Advances in transport

Improved transport means that people and goods can be moved around the world more quickly. Distance between places hasn’t changed, but the time needed to cover those distances has.

Cultural Geography


Communication and technology

Improvement in technology, such as the internet, has meant that capital (money) can be transferred instantly between locations. People can also use telephones and the internet to communicate more easily in ‘real time’.

Cultural Geography


Development of mass media

Improvements in technology have also lead to the development of a mass media, television, radio and internet, far off places now seem much closer… we can even see them in real time.

Cultural Geography


Shrinking world...

These factors have lead to increased interdependence between places… they also seem much closer than they did.

Cultural Geography



Impact on culture

Some commentators have suggested that globalisation will lead to a global culture

‘The earth's inhabitants will lose their cultural diversity and one culture will be experienced by all people. ‘

Cultural Geography

A global village will develop.


Who's global culture?

The rise of globalisation has also lead to the global company, the multinational, these global companies have had a huge impact on cultural trends across the world.

Cultural Geography


This has lead some people not to talk of a global culture, but a brand new world.

Cultural Geography


This is not a new idea...

The world the novel describes is a utopia, albeit an ironic one: humanity is carefree, healthy and technologically advanced. Warfare and poverty have been eliminated and everyone is permanently happy due to government-provided stimulation. The irony is that all of these things have been achieved by eliminating many things that humans consider to be central to their identity — family, culture, art, literature, science, religion, and philosophy. It is also a hedonistic society, deriving pleasure from promiscuous sex and drug use, especially the use of soma, a powerful drug taken to escape pain and bad memories through hallucinatory fantasies. Additionally, stability has been achieved and is maintained via deliberately engineered and rigidly enforced social stratification.


Is there a developing global culture?

Cultural Geography

McDonalds, India

McDonalds, China


But there is a kick back...

Some individuals believe that globalisation is having a negative impact on cultural diversity, these are called anti-globalisationists.

Cultural Geography


But there is a kick back...

Cultural Geography

Worried about the impact of immoral Barbie, Islamic countries have produced their own alternatives.


But there is a kick back...

Cultural Geography

Is this new global culture inclusive?


Against a global culture...

  • It is not a global culture, but in reality American culture. Some people have called it Cultural Imperialism. This has lead in some cases to violent reactions.
  • It is not inclusive, the poorest can’t afford it, despite often being the workers, nor has the process of globalisation penetrated certain locations. Global culture, people have argued, is the preserve of an educated professional elite.
  • It is a censored culture. National governments have chosen to filter exposure to certain aspects of culture that they feel are unsuitable or undermine their power.
  • It is undermines diversity. Aspects of global culture may undermine/conflict with local/national cultures, critics argue it is the movement to a standard identity.
  • It undermines national economies. National producers of food, music and culture, can’t compete with large multinational companies and their resources.
  • It lacks choice.A decreasing number of multi-nationals offering popular culture means less choice for consumers and potentially less value for money.

Cultural Geography


For a global culture...

  • Culture evolves. Culture has evolved over time and the process of globalisation is just seen as a natural extension of this process.
  • Cultural fusion. It is not only America that has influenced global culture, Asian countries such as Japan have had a huge influence, for example computing and gaming.
  • People have choice. There is not international conspiracy, consumers have a choice in the culture they consume.
  • Greater understanding. Increasing interconnectiveness makes the process of conflict more difficult, we have more in common. There have been no global conflicts in over half a century.- Global Village- tolerance through uniformity (?).
  • Improved equality. Some believe that exposure to Western culture has had a positive impact on the rights of individuals, for example the role of women in certain societies.

Cultural Geography


Global Culture or Not?

Cultural Geography