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Exercise 22: Human Cardiovascular Physiology- Blood Pressure and Pulse Determination. Cardiac Cycle. aortic pressure. ventricular pressure. atrial pressure. ventricular volume. EKG. heart sounds. DUB. LUB. Terms. Systole = contraction of ventricles
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Exercise 22: Human Cardiovascular Physiology- Blood Pressure and Pulse Determination
Cardiac Cycle aortic pressure ventricular pressure atrial pressure ventricular volume EKG heart sounds DUB LUB
Terms • Systole = contraction of ventricles • Diastole = relaxation of ventricles • Cardiac cycle= events of one complete heartbeat, during which both atria and ventricles contract and then relax
AV valves closed during ventricular systole AV valves open during ventricular diastole AV valves open when ventricular pressure is less than atrial pressure. AV valves close when the pressure inside the ventricle rises
Semilunar valves closed during ventricular diatole Semilunar valves open during ventricular systole Semilunar valves open when ventricular pressure exceeds that of the large arteries leaving the heart. Semilunar valves close when ventricles relax at the end of systole to prevent backflow
Pressure in the heart is highest during ventricular systole. Pressure in the heart is lowest during ventricular diastole.
.75 seconds 1 cardiac cycle
Left atrium Right atrium Left ventricle Right ventricle Ventricularfilling Atrialcontraction Isovolumetriccontraction phase Ventricularejection phase Isovolumetricrelaxation Mid-to-late diastole(ventricular filling) Ventricular systole(atria in diastole) Early diastole Filling Heart Chambers: Cardiac Cycle LUB= AV valve closing DUB = semilunar valve closing LUB DUB is caused by the closing of the heart valves- the first sound is longer and louder and the second sound, which is short and sharp Figure 11.7
Abnormal Sounds might indicate……. • Valve deformities that can seriously hamper cardiac function and ultimately weaken the heart. • Abnormalities in the conduction system of the heart. • Inadequate blood supply to the heart. “Heart block" or "AV block." is when the electrical impulse signal from the heart's upper to lower chambers is impaired or doesn't transmit. Cardiac ischemia is the name for lack of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle. Heart valve problems:Stenosis is when heart valves don't open enough to allow the blood to flow through as it should. Regurgitation is when the heart valves don't close properly and allow blood to leak through. Mitral valve prolapse is when the valve leaflets bulge or prolapse back into the upper chamber. They may not close properly and blood may leak back through.
Pulse • Pulse • Alternating surges of pressure (expansion then recoil) in an artery that occur with each beat of the left ventricle. • Monitored at “pressure points” in arteries where pulse is easily palpated • Pulse averages 70–76 beats per minute at rest
Pulse Figure 11.18
Has an artery or vein been cut? How to tell. • Blood from a vein would be darker than from an artery.If you punctured an artery or vein then the blood flow would continue until you put pressure on it to allow for the blood to clot. • An arterial cut will spurt blood. Vein will just flow out.
Blood Pressure • The pressure the blood exerts against the inner blood vessel wall. • Systolic pressure—pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular contraction • Diastolic pressure—pressure in the arteries when ventricles relax
Comparison of Blood Pressures in Different Vessels Figure 11.19
Measuring Arterial Blood Pressure with Sphygomomanometer Figure 11.20a
Korotkoff Sounds - Auscultatory blood pressure measurement showing onset of Korotkoff sounds at systolic pressure, and diminishing sounds as diastolic pressure is reached. Note that last (diastolic) pulse is barely audible but clearly visible. Sounds of Korotkoff Auscultation is the technical term for listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope Sounds caused by the resumption of blood flow into the forearm. Auscultatory blood pressure measurement showing onset of Korotkoff sounds at systolic pressure, and diminishing sounds as diastolic pressure is reached. Figure 11.20b http://www.thinklabsmedical.com/stethoscope_community/Sound_Library
Blood Pressure • Write systolic pressure first and diastolic last • (120/80 mm Hg) • Pressure in blood vessels decreases as distance from the heart increases…..veins are further away from the heart than arteries are.
Blood Pressure: Effects of Factors • BP is blood pressure • BP is affected by age, weight, time of day, exercise, body position, emotional state • CO is the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per minute • PR is peripheral resistance, or the amount of friction blood encounters as it flows through vessels • Narrowing of blood vessels and increased blood volume increases PR • BP = CO PR
Blood Pressure: Effects of Factors • Neural factors • Autonomic nervous system adjustments (sympathetic division) • Renal factors • Regulation by altering blood volume • Renin—hormonal control
Blood Pressure: Effects of Factors • Temperature • Heat has a vasodilating effect • Cold has a vasoconstricting effect • Chemicals • Various substances can cause increases or decreases • Diet
Factors Determining Blood Pressure Figure 11.21
Variations in Blood Pressure • Normal human range is variable • Normal • 140–110 mm Hg systolic • 80–75 mm Hg diastolic • Hypotension • Low systolic (below 110 mm HG) • Often associated with illness • Hypertension • High systolic (above 140 mm HG) • Can be dangerous if it is chronic