1863: The Turning Point in The Civil War By: Mitch Walker, Robert Mikes, Alyssa Russell, Michelle Husain, and Jake Lim
January 1st: The Emancipation Proclamation Goes into Effect • After the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect, the Southern goal became a goal about defending slavery. • The Emancipation Proclamation transformed the Civil War from a war about secession to a war about “a new birth of freedom”. • The arrival of more soldiers who were set free by the Proclamation aided the Union in its win and successful siege at the Battle of Vicksburg.
Battle of Vicksburg • The Battle of Vicksburg was more of a siege than a battle • Ulysses S. Grant and the Union Army was trying to gain control of Vicksburg, being defended by John C. Pemberton • It was a 48 day siege with many attempts from the north to gain control of Vicksburg
General John C. Pemberton • John Pemberton was born in Philadelphia and married a Virginian woman who encouraged him to be a general for the South • He graduated from a Military Academy in 1837 • He was general of the department of Georgia and South Carolina until Robert E. Lee transferred him to the defense of Vicksburg while it was under siege
Ulysses S. Grant • General Grant was born in Ohio • He did not want to go to military school but his father encouraged him to go • He graduated from West Point and was soon to become one of the greatest American generals ever • The Vicksburg victory was one of his greatest military achievements • After the war, Grant went on to become the 18th president of the United States
Vicksburg Location • Vicksburg was located in Mississippi • The South had a chance to control the Mississippi River by defending Vicksburg, but lost its opportunity when it surrendered Vicksburg • The Union gained a huge advantage from the victory.
Vicksburg’s Importance • Vicksburg was located at a point where it was easy to control a portion of the Mississippi River which prevented the North from gaining full control of the river • Abraham Lincoln knew that gaining control of Vicksburg was the key to winning the war • Both the North and the South knew that whoever controlled the Mississippi, controlled the West
Vicksburg Campaign In 1863, Grant undertook a new and bold campaign against Vicksburg and the Confederate defenders, which were led by Pemberton. Grant conducted a surprise landing below Vicksburg at Bruinsburg, Mississippi. He pushed back a threat posed by Joseph E. Johnston. Afterward, Grant started for Vicksburg. Previous Union victories at Champion Hill and Big Black River weakened Pemberton’s forces
Vicksburg Campaign • The Union surrounded Vicksburg and tried to control it for some time but the Confederates held their ground • The Confederates were low on ammunition, food, and water and were all going to starve. • On July 3rd John C. Pemberton received a letter from his soldiers saying if he couldn’t feed them, he should surrender Vicksburg to the Union forces. • Pemberton surrendered the city on July 3rd, giving control of Vicksburg and the Mississippi River to the North.
1807-1870 • General Robert Edward Lee previously served in the Mexican-American war. • General Lee was the top general of the Confederacy in the Civil War. • General Lee was best known for his victory at the Battle of Second Bull Run (Manassas). • He was a Virginian, so he elected to leave the Union army and fight for the Confederacy. Robert Edward Lee
1815-1872 • General George Gordon Meade had previously fought in the Mexican American war, but had seen no major combat. • General Meade is best known for his victory against Robert E. Lee in the Battle of Gettysburg. • General Meade died of pneumonia in his late fifties. George Gordon Meade
Hooker was previously the commander in the Potomac • There he improved conditions for the soldiers including food, medical care, and leave. • Hooker teamed up with “Stonewall” Jackson multiple times, though the Battle of Chancellorsville was the last time. • “Stonewall” Jackson was badly wounded during the battle of Chancellorsville and the amputation led to pneumonia. Joseph Hooker
Battle of Chancellorsville • General Robert E. Lee was in charge of the Southern army during the Battle of Chancellorsville. • The Union army was twice as large as the Confederate army, therefore Lee was not expected to win, though he fought with great strength. • Lee’s army confused the Union army by separating his army into two groups. • Against all odds, Lee won the battle due to his keen strategy and tactics.
Battle of Chancellorsville • After Lee won the battle of Chancellorsville, he and his army headed to Pennsylvania. • Lee intended to collect some supplies from the farmland, but started to threaten the North and asked to fight them. Lee knew the North wouldn’t refuse a fight. • General Meade moved his army in between Lee’s army and Washington D.C.
151 years after the Battle of Gettysburg, it remains one of the most closely studied and debated battles in American history. The Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg was located in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania • The Gettysburg Battle took place on a wheat field surrounded by a wooded forest The Location of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg was considered the turning point in The Civil War The battle lasted only three days, from July 1st to July 3rd, yet it was one of the bloodiest, most important battles of the Civil War
The Battle of Gettysburg erupted from a small unexpected encounter between a group of Confederates who were looking for supplies and a small portion of Union horsemen. Both sides quickly sent more men to the scene. • The Union soldiers were overwhelmed and retreated to Cemetery Ridge in the afternoon. • They formed a line and brought in reinforcements to guard and strengthen their defenses. Gettysburg: Day 1
On the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg, the Union had a chance to defeat the Confederacy in battle. • General Sickles changed his position without the permission of his superior officer. • Cross led a charge, not knowing he was outnumbered almost two to one. • Union men fell quickly due to rebel fire while running through the wheatfield Gettysburg: Day 2
Cross was shot getting ready to give the signal for another charge. • Despite several charges, the Union line on Cemetery Ridge was still intact at the end of Day 2. • The Confederates hesitated and never attacked that day. Gettysburg: Day 2
General Robert E. Lee was still focused on taking the hill, and ordered 14,000 men under the command of George E. Pickett to charge into the Union center. • This charge became known as “Pickett’s Charge”. Gettysburg: Day 3
“A Harvest of Death” Union casualties: 23,049 people were killed, wounded, or reported missing Confederate casualties: About 28,000 people were killed, wounded, or missing Around 164,000 soldiers took part in the battle
The Gettysburg Address • Lincoln about to deliver his Gettysburg Address Original copy of the Gettysburg Address
The Gettysburg National Cemetery • After the Battle of Gettysburg, a cemetery was to be placed on the site of the battlefield. • Lincoln was to deliver his famous Gettysburg Address to dedicate the cemetery. • Many say Lincoln was very nonchalant about writing the speech. • The Speech was only 272 words, ten sentences, and two minutes long. • No one took a picture of him taking the speech because it was so short.
“Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure.” Lincoln was indicating that the nation was being tested about whether a nation based on liberty and freedom could be sustained. He was making an argument to his listeners that the only way to keep the Union together was to fight for it and the principles it was based upon. Analyzing the Gettysburg Address
“But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract.” Lincoln was referring to the men who struggled and fought at Gettysburg who were being honored for their dedication and the cause they fought for. It was their sacrifice that consecrated and hallowed the battlefield, not the words that were spoken at the dedication. Analyzing the Gettysburg Address
“It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.” Lincoln was encouraging the Union to keep fighting so that those who had died in the battle had not died in vain. Lincoln is using this battle and speech as a way to encourage people to continue fighting in the War. Analyzing the Gettysburg Address
“that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” This is arguably the most important line in the Gettysburg Address, which may have been why Lincoln used it as his closing statement. He was reminding everyone listening why the war was being fought in the first place: to keep democracy and freedom alive, preserve the Union and continue the work that the Founding Fathers began. Analyzing the Gettysburg Address
After Lincoln had finished his speech, the audience was silent and shocked; they did not know that he had already finished, considering the length of not only Everett’s speech, but others’ who spoke at the ceremony as well. • People had been expecting hour long speeches, and Lincoln only talked for two minutes • Lincoln was displeased with his performance. He said it was a “flat failure”. • Today, some think of the Gettysburg Address as an interpretation of the Declaration of Independence. Reactions to the Gettysburg Address
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