an overview of the american civil war in the east 1861 1863 l.
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AN OVERVIEW OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR IN THE EAST 1861-1863 The fighting begins… Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861 Confederates attack the fort at 4:30 a.m. 30 hour bombardment Bloodless Major Anderson, U. S., surrenders Off to war we go!! Each side knew it would win.

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the fighting begins
The fighting begins…

Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861

  • Confederates attack the fort at 4:30 a.m.
  • 30 hour bombardment
  • Bloodless
  • Major Anderson, U. S., surrenders
off to war we go
Off to war we go!!
  • Each side knew it would win.
  • God was on their side!
  • One Southerner could lick ten Yanks!
  • Onward Christian Soldiers!
on to richmond
Neither side prepared

Gen. Irvin McDowell, U.S., leads troops to Manassas

Gen. Pierre Beauregard, C.S., defends Manassas

Armies collide on July 21, 1861

Union defeated

Stonewall Jackson

On to Richmond!
george mcclellan to the rescue
George McClellan to the Rescue

George B. McClellan is appointed to command the Federal armies.

  • Charismatic
  • Great organizer
  • Democrat
  • Little Napoleon
  • The “Slows”
new technology helps the war effort
New technology helps the war effort

Balloons floated in the

skies…

and ironclads floated

on the seas.

the shenandoah valley campaign
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson outfoxes 3 Union armies

Classic military campaign

Shenandoah was the “bread basket” of the Confederate Army in Virginia

Jackson’s victories make Lincoln fear for Washington, D.C.

The Shenandoah Valley Campaign
mcclellan opens the peninsula campaign
McClellan opens the Peninsula Campaign
  • The Peninsula is formed by the James and York Rivers
  • Union forces land at the base of the Peninsula and push the Confederates back to Richmond
  • May 31, 1862- Battle of Seven Pines (Fair Oaks)

* C.S. Gen. Joe Johnston wounded

* June 1, 1862, Robert E. Lee takes command

  • Confederates push McClellan back during the Seven Days battles
john pope comes east
John Pope comes East
  • General John Pope is brought from the Western Theatre to the East.
  • “In the West, I only saw the backs of the Rebels.”
  • “My headquarters will be in the saddle.”
  • Pope creates the Union Army of Virginia
second manassas
Second Manassas
  • Jackson captures Pope’s supply base at Manassas
  • Jackson waits for Pope on the previous battlefield
  • Pope attacks Jackson on August 28 and 29 of 1862
  • Lee and Longstreet arrive to help rout Pope
lee invades maryland in september 1862
Lee Invades Maryland in September 1862
  • On September 4, 1862, the Army of Northern Virginia splashed across the Potomac River into Maryland. The Southern bands were playing a new song called “Maryland, My Maryland”. The Southerners were dirty and ragged but very confident. Confederate forces marched into Frederick, MD and waited for something to happen. Lee sent much of his army back to Harper’s Ferry to capture the Federal garrison there.
little mac moves to save the nation
Little Mac moves to save the nation!
  • McClellan moves to Frederick, Maryland
  • Union soldiers find Lee’s lost Special Orders #191
  • Union forces capture South Mountain
  • Lee retreats to Sharpsburg, Maryland and orders all of his men to move there
  • Jackson comes up from Harpers Ferry
the bloodiest day in american history
The Bloodiest Day in American History

September 17, 1862, The Battle of Antietam

  • 35,000 Confederates vs. 85,000 Federals
  • Total casualties: 23,500 men
  • Three phases of the battle:

1. The Miller farm- East and West Woods,

The Cornfield, the Dunker Church

2. The Sunken Road (The Bloody Lane)

3. Burnside’s Bridge

the results of antietam
The Results of Antietam
  • The Emancipation Proclamation
  • No foreign recognition for the Confederacy
  • McClellan will be replaced by Ambrose Burnside
  • The war returns to Virginia
  • The bloodiest single day of the war
fredericksburg december 1862
Fredericksburg, December 1862
  • Burnside gathers a very large army and attacks the Confederates at Fredericksburg. Lee has had time to entrench and has prepared his men. The Federals attack uphill over a large open field and are butchered. The Union loses over 12,500 men and does not drive the Confederates from their lines.
  • Burnside will try to flank the Southerners a month later and bogs down so deeply that horses and mules are buried in the mud. Burnside will be replaced by Joe Hooker.
joe hooker attacks at chancellorsville
Joe Hooker attacks at Chancellorsville
  • Hooker re-organizes the army and gathers over 100,000 men.
  • Hooker surprises Lee and gets around his flank. Lee barely stops Hooker at the Chancellorsville Court House crossroads.
  • Jackson takes the majority of the Southern soldiers on a long march around the Union army.
  • Jackson attacks the unsuspecting Federals at supper time and rolls them up. Two Federal corps are routed before darkness ends the advance.
  • Jackson goes out between the lines to scout the Union lines and is mistakenly shot by his own men. His right arm has to be amputated and he dies a week later.
  • The Confederates continue the battle and defeat Hooker. Total casualties for the two armies was 24,000 men.
lee raids pennsylvania
Lee Raids Pennsylvania
  • In June, 1863, the Confederates march north through Maryland and into Pennsylvania.
  • Lee wants to relieve the pressure on Virginia
  • Lee needs to get food and supplies for his army
  • Confederate forces get as far north as Harrisburg, the capitol of the state, and as far east as York
  • Lee needs to gather his forces which are scattered out over a large area and he orders them to converge on the crossroads town of Gettysburg
  • The Union army chases Lee and Hooker is replaced by George Gordon Meade on June 28, 1863
july 1 1863
Union cavalry under John Buford wait west of Gettysburg

Confederate infantry under Harry Heth attack

Union reinforcements, the First Corps of the Army of the Potomac, come up and a full scale battle develops

General Reynolds, U.S., is killed

By the end of the day the Union forces are driven back through Gettysburg and onto Cemetery Hill

July 1, 1863
gettysburg july 2 1863
Gettysburg, July 2, 1863
  • The Confederates attack in the late afternoon on both flanks of the Yankee army
  • Places such as Devil’s Den, Little Round Top, The Wheatfield, the Rose Farm, The Peach Orchard, and Culp’s Hill become blood baths
  • By dark the Union lines have held and over 15,000 men have been shot down
gettysburg july 3 1863
Gettysburg, July 3, 1863
  • Robert E. Lee orders a charge to break the Union center
  • Longstreet sends Pickett, Pettigrew and Trimble with 11,000 to 13,000 men across an open field to try to break the Union lines.
  • “Pickett’s Charge” fails
  • “We gained nothing but glory and lost our best men.”
  • Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock directs the Union defense of Cemetery Ridge
the results of gettysburg
The results of Gettysburg
  • 52,000 casualties in three days
  • The Confederate raid is stopped and the Rebels are driven back to Virginia
  • The Confederates capture enough food to feed their army for four to five months
  • This battle, combined with the Union victory at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River, turns the tide of the war in favor of the Union